Classical Cryptography Course,
Volumes I and II from Aegean Park Press

By Randy Nichols (LANAKI)
President of the American Cryptogram Association from 1994-1996.
Executive Vice President from 1992-1994

Table of Contents
  • Lesson 1
  • Lesson 2
  • Lesson 3
  • Lesson 4
  • Lesson 5
  • Lesson 6
  • Lesson 7
  • Lesson 8
  • Lesson 9
  • Lesson 10
  • Lesson 11
  • Lesson 12
  • CLASSICAL CRYPTOGRAPHY COURSE


    BY LANAKI

    March 10, 1996


    Revision 1
    COPYRIGHT 1996
    ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
    LECTURE 9
    GERMAN REDUCTION CIPHERS

    ENIGMA IN HISTORICAL AND MODERN TIMES

    SUMMARY

    In Lecture 9, we circumvent the schedule for another realtreat - the ENIGMA cipher machine. Considering the focus ofthe 1995 ACA convention, several articles in CRYPTOLOGIA, arecent book by Robert Harris called Enigma, a Randomhousechallenge cipher contest based on the Enigma (won by several ofthe KREWE), many questions from my students, I thought we wouldaddress the subject of ENIGMA.

    I have had the pleasure to work with ESSAYONS on a project inwhich we looked at the security of the original Enigma Dmachine in terms of 1995 technology improvements. ESSAYONS hasbrought to light some brilliant insights.

    The ENIGMA 95 computer program cited in this lecture isavailable at the CDB. Contact NORTH DECODER for access, orclick here: Enigma 95

    Students have asked 1) what is Enigma and 2) where does Enigmafit into history of radio communications in WWII?

    There are three pillars of radio-intelligence: directionfinding, traffic analysis and deciphering. Direction findingequipment and technology is outside the scope of this course.Traffic analysis has been discussed in a previous lecture. Wewill quickly revisit its value and then follow Professor JurgenRohwer's analysis of the Atlantic Warfare to understandEnigma's position in cryptographic history. [ROHE]

    The Enigma machine is actually a good starting point formy discussion on polygraphic and polyalphabetic cipher analysis(originally planned for Lecture 9). We start at the endpointof a discussion and return to the beginning to build up thecryptanalytic tools to understand the cleverness of the ENIGMA.We will continue with the Friedman and MASTERTON in Lecture 10and following. [MAST], [FR2], [FR3]

    TRAFFIC ANALYSIS REVISITED

    Recall that traffic analysis yields information via Cribmessages, Isologs and Chatter. Crib messages assume a partialknowledge of the underlying plain text through recognition ofthe external characteristics. Command reports, up and downGerman channels, were especially easy for American crypees. Theorigin, serial number range, the cryptonet id, report type, thefile date and time, message length and error messages in theclear, gave a clear picture of the German command process.German order of battle, troop dispositions and movements werededuced by traffic analysis.

    An Isolog exists when the underlying plain text is encrypted intwo different systems. They exist because of relay repetitionrequirements, book messages to multiple receivers or error bythe code clerk. American crypees were particularly effective inobtaining intelligence from this method.

    Traffic analysis boils down to finding the contact relationshipsamong units, tracking their movements, building up the cryptonetauthorities, capitalizing on lack of randomness in theirstructures, and exploiting book and relay cribs.

    ENIGMA

    ENIGMA was the generic term for the German machine ciphers. Itwas both the name of the first enciphering device and the manyvariations used during WWII. ULTRA was the British code-namefor intelligence derived from cracking the Enigma machineciphers by an organization of about 10,000 at Bletchley Park(BP). The extent of the penetration of the German commandstructure was so profound and so pervasive that it is clear thatBP's work changed not only the conduct but the outcome of AlliedEuropean Operations in WWII. Most brilliant of ULTRA successeswas against German Afrika Korps whereby the 8th Army HQ readEnigma telegrams before Rommel himself. [ASIR] [KAH2]

    There now exists a fair amount of material on Enigma. Thefollowing annotated outline should give the reader some ideashow important Enigma was in WWII and sources of information:

    ENIGMA CIPHER MACHINE(S)

    A: HISTORY

    A1: Historical Perspective - Atlantic Theater Warfare in EightPhases 1939 - 1945.
    Enigma was central to the Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.Primary sources for the historical perspective come fromGermany, Canada, UK, and USA. Professor Jurgen Rohwer'sComparative Analysis of Allied and Axis Radio-Intelligence inthe Battle of the Atlantic, [ROHE] presents the ENIGMA historyin 8 phases:

         Phase 1 -  Single U-Boats vs Independent Ships     9/39-6/40  Failure of BP on Schlussel M (Navy Machine)     Phase 2 -  Wolf Pack vs Convoy     7/40-5/41  Success of B-Dienst (German Naval decryption                service)     Phase 3 -  Evasive Routing, US Entry     6/41-12/41 U-33 3 rotors recovered, U-110, Munchen                Bombe limited success 336 settings                German 4 rotor improvement     Phase 4 -  BP Successes on Enigma D, US losses     1/1-6/42     Phase 5 -  Convoy Battles     7/47-12/13 Triton Broken ; Rerouting; Milch runs     Phase 6 -  Bay Offensive     6/43-8/43     Phase 7 -  Decreased Operations vs Convoys     9/43-5/44  Increased use of Ultra     Phase 8 -  Holding Campaign with Schnorkel U-boats     6/44-end   New Enigma not released in time for Germany
    Professor Rohwer presents 105 primary references. [ROHE]

    A2. Discussion:
    From September, 1939 to June 1940, German U-boats cruised westof the British Isles and Bay of Biscay to intercept AlliedMerchant ships. U-boats found enough targets. Radio signalswere as indispensable to the German Commander in Chief, U-boats(BdU = Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote - Commander in Chief ofSubmarines) for directing his U-boat groups or wolf packs asthey were for Allied commanders directing the convoys ofmerchant ships and their escorts. The aim of the Axis powerswas to sever the lines of communication by surface radars,aircraft and especially U-boats to attack ships in the convoysand thus sink more vessels and tonnage than the Alliedshipbuilding yards could replace.

    In the first two phases of the Battle of the Atlantic, there wasa clear superiority with cryptanalytic success on the Germanside. Intelligence was of limited value to actual operations.The Germans introduced the short signal system, using a codebookto shorten communications to a few four letter groups which weresuperenciphered with daily settings of the Schlussel M [M Key]in the circuit of Heimische Gewasser (home waters). The RoyalNavy used two crypto-systems - the first was the Naval Cypherwhich used 4 figure codebooks and the second was the 5 figurecodebook Naval code. Both used subtractor tables of 5000 groupschanged monthly. B-dienst was reading about 30 -50 % of theNaval Cypher, used by officers. The Merchant Navy Code wasbroken by the B-dienst in March 1940.

    In the third phase BP mastered the Schlussel M-3 and savedabout 400 ships by rerouting convoys. The Schlussel M-3 usedthree rotors out a stock of eight rotors. BP had limited nosuccess against VI-VIII and limited success against rotors I-IV.The boarding of the Krebs gave the British a box of five rotors.A key to Enigma is its two inner settings, the Walzenlage, orrotor order, and the Ringstellung, the setting of the alphabetrings. In addition to these were the plugboard , theSteckerverbindungen, of ten pairs of letters and theGrundstellung, the starting positions of the rotors. Thecapture of U-110 gave BP a consistent set of settings and gridmaps to reference. The British STR (Submarine Tracking Room)became key to rerouting ships valued at 1.5 mm GRT.

    Phase 4 clearly went to the Germans because of their scoreof ships sunk off the Americas.

    In Phase 5, near 1942, the BdU had many interceptions becausethe B-dienst decrypted the rerouting signals more effectively.Triton introduced and stumps BP. In March 1943, BP solves theTriton and Admiralty changes the operation patterns.

    The six and seventh phases German cipher improvements broken byuse of U. S. and British high speed Bombes.

    Introduction of Kurier system for high speed transmissions tonew U-boat type XXI was released to late to stop operationOverlord.

    A3: Shipping Losses and Input Tonnage
    Allied shipping losses were significant and import tonnage wasreduced because of the U-boat success and communication.T. J. Runyan and Jan M. Copes "To Die Gallently" [RUNY]presents details.

    A4. Enigma Chronology
    David Kahn presents an Enigma chronology in terms of worldevents. A clearer picture of the effect of ULTRA can not befound. Timelines based on his and the honorable F. H. Hinsleybooks. [KAH2], [KAH3], [HINS] and [KAH3]

    A5: British Perspective
    The early history of the Enigma, the Polish attack and thebeginnings of BP covered in [KAH3] ,[WINT] Winterbotham andBeesley give us special insights into the fray. [BEES] Otherperspectives found in [ANTH] and [HYDE].

    A6: Polish Perspective
    The story of the Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Rozycki and HenrykZygalski pioneering work in the Biuro Szyfrow (Cipher Bureau)and their escape to France is told in [ASIR].

    B: SPECIFICATIONS

    B1: Enigma Machine Classes A-E (Deavours)
    Enigma was a class of machines. Cipher A. Deavours and LouisKruh, in Chapter III of "Machine Cryptography and ModernCryptanalysis", give detailed descriptions with pictures, rotororder, settings, plug-board and their influence on frequencydistribution. [DEVO]

    B2: Enigma - 3 rotor (Kahn)
    David Kahn in his "Seizing the Enigma" ,pp 178 ff gives gooddetail. Also "Codebreakers" p422. , also various articles byKahn in Cryptologia give pictorials. [KAH3] [KAHN]

    B3: Army Enigma - 3 rotor (Hinsley)
    F.H. Hinsley and Alan Strip in "Codebreakers - Story ofBletchley Park", [HINS] have pictures and supporting detail forthe Army version 3 rotor device.

    B4: Early Variations - (Friedman)
    NSA's Friedman Legacy - A Tribute to William and ElizabethFriedman, 1992, pp 201 ff discusses the early Enigma variants.[FL]

    B5: Naval Variation - Air Ministry (3 of 8 rotors)
    See Ref's [ASIR]

    B6: Air Force Variation - 3 rotor of five (British Air Ministry)
    See section B3.

    B7: University of Hamburg - WWW : Enigma pictures
    Dr. Klaus Brunnstein (University of Hamburg) has providedexcellent GIF Enigma pictures in their Working Groups "museum":

         Address: http://www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de     Select "international homepage"     From 2nd entry "groups", select AGN     (first of the working groups)     There, select "Museum" (4th entry) where you get a     list of about 40 pictures.             The CDB has these also.

    C: PATENTS

    C1: General - (Levine)
    Jack Levine presents the most comprehensive treatment of U.S.Cryptographic Patents 1861-1981 in [LEVI].

    C2: Scherbius #1,657,411 [LAUE] [Geheimschrijfmachine] 1919
    Rudolph F Lauer discusses the original A. Scherbius Enigmapatent # 1657411 in his "Computer Simulation of ClassicalSubstitution Cryptographic Systems" in [LAUE]. This machinewas used for diplomatic communications and had ten rotors. BPbroke it late in the game using the Colossus machines.

    C3: Herbern # 1,683,072 [Electric Code Machine], 1917
    Reference [ASIR] gives an interesting account of Herbern'sefforts.

    D: ENCIPHERING PROCESS

    D1: Naval Enigma (Kahn)
    David Kahn in his "Seizing the Enigma" Appendix presents adetailed Enciphering procedure for the Naval Enigma.Approximately 20 pages of notes, biblio, interviews anddiagrams. [KAH3]

    D2: ESSAYONS and LANAKI present modern PC technology applied toencipherment process in [ENIG].

    E: CRYPTANALYSIS

    E1: BP Analysis (Turing)
    Cryptanalysis of the various Enigma variants starts withAlan Turing "The Enigma", in [ALAN]

    E2: Polish Attack (Rejewski)
    Perhaps the earliest and best attack, Marian Rejewski wrote thebrilliant "Mathematical Solution of the Enigma Cipher" publishedin [REJE].

    E3: Double Encipherment Flaw (Bloch)
    Gilbert Bloch and Ralph Erskine exploit the double enciphermentflaw in article on Enigma, in Cryptologia. [BLOC]

    E4: Lauer Analysis of Classical Systems & (Deavours)
    Rudolph F. Lauer presents Cipher A Deavours simulation programp73 ff in reference [LAUE]. Deavour's program reveals theGerman Army cipher machine simulated consisted of three rotors(of eight), rings settings, plugboard (for key super -encipherment, rotor starting positions and a reflecting rotor.The program requires the user to set "prepare the machine" bysetting the rotor wirings, rotor order, rotor starting position,ringsettings, plugboard pairs and no of plugs used and thecurrent rotor positions. It calculates the patchpanel, dis-placements of cylinder coding and effects of reverse rotors, andreflecting rotor. There are no error checks for singularity.

    Lauer also presents ten cryptographic systems and representativecipher machines in increasing order of difficulty. He presents72 references (including the Cipher A. Deavours simulations) ondisk. Each system is not only simulated but the principles forthe entire class of machines are presented. Ignoring theprogramming language, BASIC ( I would choose FORTRAN, otherswould choose C, and others APL, and others ADA and..); themethods applicable to one machine apply equally well to othersin the same class.

    I have rearranged his classification methodology and added myown thoughts to show how ENIGMA fits into the progression ofclassical cryptographic / mechanical systems:


        E40: Mathematical Footholds         a: Modulo 26 Arithmetic, Congruences, Matrices         b: Statistical Phi values for small distributions         c: Isomorphism - reference [CAND]         d: Optimization Theory         e: Advanced Calculus, Linear Transformations         f: Probability Theory    E41: Simple Substitution - Cipher Disk  {My Lectures 1-8 }         Principles: monosubstitution, K1,K2,K3,K4, KM sequence         keying, transpositional keys.         Examples: Aristocrats, Patristocrats, Xenocrypts         Caesar, sliding strips, rotating disks         Attacks: Frequency analysis, word pattern, bigram,         trigram, vowel spotting, letter distribution.    E42: Periodic Polyalphabetic Substitution - Viggy Devices    {My Lectures 10-13}         Principles: poly-alpha-substitution, repeat key          sequence         Examples: Vigenere, Variant, Beaufort, Porta, Gronsfeld         Attack: Periodicity, Kasiski, trigraphic, traffic         analysis, Kerckhoff's method.    E43: Running Key and Autokey - Kammel and Weller Devices         Principles: polyalphasubstitution, non-repeat key         sequence, PT autokey, CT autokey and running key         Examples: Running key and autokey ciphers         Attack: Friedman attack - "Solution of Running Key         Ciphers, probable word, known plain text.    E44: Simple Progressive         Principles: constant shift interval to employ all         secondary alphabets (period = 26)         Examples: Progressive Cipher         Attacks: Friedman attacks, periodicity at 26,13,2,1         same as E42, Chi test, matching frequency         distributions, decimation intervals, coherent key    E45: Irregular - KRYHA         Principles: irregular shifting of primary components         non coherent key, non recognizable key, long key         derived from two or more short keys, pseudo-random         different interval shifts on progressive; sum of shifts         be relatively prime to N in alphabet         Examples: One time pad, Vernam Key Tape         Attacks: Sacco's solution, Isomorphism, Friedmans         technique    E46: Wheatstone Cryptograph         Principles: Aperiodic cipher, extra sequence shift,         error control         Examples: Jefferson, Hebern machine, Vernam         Attack: Friedmans techniques [FR4] probable phrase    E47: Multiplex Systems         Principles: Wheel ciphers         Examples: Jefferson, M-138, M-94         Attack: Friedman techniques, De Viaris examination,         synoptic tables, G. Mellen attack, Rohrbach method         coincidences - generatrices group    E48: HAGELIN M-209         Principles: pin lug mechanism, cylindrical cage, guide         arm - print wheel rotates number of positions = sum of         the lugs on those key wheels which were affected by         active pins.  ==> key value with period of 3,120,180         letters.         Examples: C-36, M-209         Attack: Wayne Barker analysis one wheel to six wheels,         statistical analysis on settings, probable word    E49: ENIGMA         Principles: electrical rotor or transfer wheel,         stepping gears, maze between keyboard and indicating         device  producing 26 ** N different enciphering         alphabets, re-entrance phenomenon, excess contacts.         superencipherment         Examples: ENIGMA A-E         Attacks: Polish, BP, Turing, Deavours, Friedman IC,         E1-E8 previously cited, Chi test on diagonals,         isomorphs, Pohlig w/ PT, Konheim analysis, Lisicki         Grille 1000x1000 rearrangements         Modern Experiments: Remove reflecting rotor.                             Use re-entrance type rotor         [ ACA and           Install bi-directional Rotors           University of     Increase entropy           Hamburg ]         Expand character sets    E410: HILL SYSTEM  {NORTH DECODER in Lecture 8}         Principles: Polygraphic encipherment, non - linear         encipherment == forerunner of "S" boxes in DES         Examples: Playfair, Hill Device         Attacks: Konheim technique, Rhee analysis, Mapping,

    E5: Polish attacks (Kozaczuk)
    Dr. Wladyslaw Kozaczuk discusses the Polish attacks on Enigma in[KOZA]

    E6: Involution Principle (Konheim)
    Involution principles are presented by Alan G. Konheim,"Cryptography -A Primer" , in [KONH]

    E7: Related Machines (Barker)
    Wayne G. Barker presents a related analysis in "Cryptanalysis ofthe Hagelin Cryptograph, in [BARK].

    E8: Enigma 3 (Sassoons )
    A clever treatment of the Enigma 3 wheel device can be foundin George Sassoons, "Radio Hackers Code Book", [SASS]

    E9: Tieman C (Schneier)
    Bruce Schneier, in his "Applied Cryptography', presents Tieman'sC program. [SCH1]

    F: ROTOR SYSTEMS

    F1: Theory (Konheim)
    The general theory of rotor systems is well presented in chapter5 of Konheim's primer. [KONH]

    F2: Polish Solution
    The brilliance of Marian Rejewski solution is presented in "TheMathematical Solution of the Enigma Cipher " in [REJE]

    F3: Computer Crypto and Probability Analysis [A German View]
    Norbert Ryska and Siegfried Herda give a fresh look at computertechniques required for Cryptography. From a German point ofview, it gives the reader a look at security risks, and crypto-methodology. [RYSK]

    G: ENIGMA IMPROVEMENTS

    G1: Code Changes (Sassoon)
    Sassoon suggests improvements to Enigma by using full ASCIIset of 256. Sequence length 256 x x 256. Rotor settings inblocks of 256 8-bit bytes one to define the position of eachrotor. Sassoon's Basic Enigma3 simulation 4 rotors and areflector rotor. It simulates the movement towards thereflector or away from it. Rotor cross connections are welldefined. Subroutines to test the encryption and decryption areincluded. Clear rotor advancement routines. Error checkingsubs as well. No plugboard. [SASS]

    G2: Improved Security (ESSAYONS and LANAKI)
    Clarence Tyner Jr. has spent significant time since 1944 onGerman cipher production and reduction efforts. Starting with aModel D (circa 1920's) Tyner simulated the original Enigma withwartime enhancements (plugboard, expanded rotor sets, etc.) andthen improved it while staying within the original concepts ofthe original machine (keyboard input, data path through aplugboard, rotating rotors, reflecting rotors, and outputdisplay. Presented in detail later in this lecture.

    H: ORGANIZATIONS (Kahn) (ASI)

       H1:BP   H2:OSS   H3:German Navy - U Boat Command   H4:B-Dienst   H5:Bureau De Chiffer   H6:Polish Biuro Szyfrow   H7:French Service Renseignements   H8:AVA Telecomunications   H9:German Army Command   H10:SOE   H11:RAF-SLU   H12:Siemans und Halske Aktiengesellschaft   H13:AC Bridge Laboratory
    David Kahn in his books "Seizing Enigma", "Codebreakers" ,"Kahn on Codes" and "Hitlers Spies" presents the variouspeople and organizations surrounding Enigma. Also the BritishAir Scientific Institute, chap 6 describes the relevance of eachorganization in the cracking of Enigma. [ASIR] [KAH1] [KAH2][KAHN]

    ENIGMA 95

    A simulation of an enhanced Enigma Cipher Machine on a standard personalcomputer:

              Clarence E. Tyner Jr. and Randall K. Nichols          ADDRESS : 11322 Carrollwood Drive, Tampa, Florida, 33618, USA.          5953 Long Creek Drive, Corpus Christi, Texas, 78414, USA

    ABSTRACT:

    An exploration into the possibilities of what can be done with theoperating methods of the Enigma on the personal computer. The same concept ofemploying keyboard input, a plugboard, rotors ( both normal and reflecting ),Uhr box and visual output are used, but are expanded by using 100-position rotorsthat intermittently rotate a prime amount after each input, allowing the number ofrotors to vary from 1 to 12, in front or backwards orientation, top permit anykeyboard character ( including spaces ) to be encrypted, and to simultaneouslydisplay cipher and clear text for editing. A rotating Character Set convertssingle-character input into 2-digit numbers for processing andsuperenciphermentof numeric output into alpha bigrams is possible. Regular rotors, Reversingrotors, Character Sets and Superencipherment Tables are provided in sets of 100for extensive variety. Visual monitor display and paper printout areemployedand other controls are provided. It is a "what if" speculation that shows whatcould have been possible if the technology had been available.

    KEYWORDS:

    Enigma, prime numbers, rotors, intermittent rotation,superencipherment, personal computer, QBasic, interval method, character set,random numbers, checksum, plugboard, orientation, internal settings, externalsettings.

    Everyone is familiar with the Enigma Cipher Machine and the way it operates.

    However, the more you learn about it and read about the cryptanalysis thatovercame it in World War II, the more you wonder if it could be improved withoutbecoming impossibly complicated. The personal computer provides a means toimprove the concepts that made the original Enigma work, and it can make it workmuch better.

    This project started as a simulation of the original Enigma. The pathway of theelectric circuit caused by pressing a key is easy to understand. It goes fromthekeyboard through the plugboard to the rotors, is reflected from the reversingrotor, back through the rotors, through the plugboard and finally to a lamp thatlights under a round window with an alphabet on it. At least one rotor willrotate during the pressing of the key and the pathway through the rotors willchange from what it was previously. The internal wiring of the rotors is randomand the cumulative circuit offset combinations produce an extensive number ofsubstitution alphabets. The plugboard adds to this, as did the Uhr box.

    Aside from administrative and operator errors, the weaknesses of the enigma wereas follows:

       1.  The internal wiring of the rotors was fixed.  It never changed except for       a few specialized purposes.   While the mathematical possibilities were       astronomical, only a small portion of them were utilized probably because of       manufacturing, cost and logistics considerations.   2.  There were only eight rotors in a set and only 3 or 4 could be used at a       time.   3.  The rotors rotated only very restricted basis.  One moved one position       each time.  The second moved only after the first had moved 1 to 26 positions.       The 3rd moved only after the 2nd had moved 1 to 26 positions.  There were       notches on the rotors to accomplish this and the rotors could be set so that        the movements occurred at different times, but movement of two rotors was        infrequent, and movement of all rotors was limited and somewhat predictable.   4.  The reversing ( reflecting ) rotor did not move, nor could it be moved (       except on the earlier models ).   5.  A subtle weakness was that a given letter could never be encrypted as       itself.   6.  It was expensive and labor-intensive both to manufacture and to operate.       Once it had been determined how to simulate the rotation of rotors and to       simulate the transfer of the electrical current between rotors correctly,       a major problem was solved.  Then it was necessary to determine how to        keep the internal wiring connections unchanged during rotation.  This        was followed by developing a method of selecting and installing the        rotors at a given position and then how to rotate them to an initial        setting.   Having an old Model D Enigma ( 3 rotor ) so that it was        possible to determine what the outcome should be was helpful.
    Creation of rotors presented a challenge in establishing the internal wiring andin making a set from which to choose three. Edward H. Hebern used the IntervalMethod of wiring his rotors, so it was decided to use that approach. For thosewho are not familiar with it, it involves determining the positional difference(interval ) between points connected on opposite faces of the rotor. For a 26 (A - Z ) position rotor, the intervals range from 0 to 25, with each interval beingused only once. But the geometry of the problem prevents one interval frombeing used and requires one interval to be used twice. All intervals are measured inthe same direction. For example, a connection from point A on one face to pointC on the other has an interval of 2 ( assuming opposite positions are identifiedwith the same letter ).

    I don't know how Mr. Hebern did it, but it is a job perfectly suited for acomputer. At any rate, "wiring" a rotor using the Interval Method can be verytedious because it involves a lot of trial and error if done manually (or, asit turned out, by computer ). It would be interesting to know if there is a simplealgorithm. It is supposed to produce a more secure encryption. After trying todo it manually ( by diagramming on paper ), programs were written to do it forboth regular and reversing rotors. The programs also produce a file on a floppydisk to simulate a set of rotors and print the results for record purposes.Each rotor had to be unique from all others so use of random numbers was involved.

    The plugboard was programmed so that it was possible to enter the 2-point (from-to ) sets that were to be connected. Multiple sets could be created, just as itis possible to have multiple cable connections on a mechanical Enigma.A file of plugboards is not needed because the variance within fixed fields isderived from the connections, and to allow numbers of connections to be varied.It was necessary though to provide for editing to insure that each position wasused only once ( as in real life ).

    At this point, the idea of expanding the Enigma came into being in the form ofintroducing variability between the keyboard and the plugboard such as the UhrBox does. It was decided to make the Enigma process the data in numerical form andexpand it from a 26 to a 100 character format. This numerical format (00 -99)has the disadvantage of doubling the length of a message, but it has certainadvantages. In addition to handling alphabetic letters, it can also:

       1.  Allow upper/lower cases, numbers, symbols, punctuations, and spaces to be       encrypted.   2.  Better conceal the language and individual characters being transmitted.   3.  Eliminate the problem of a letter not being encrypted as itself.   4.  Allow a longer period between repetitions.   5.  Permit superencipherment.   6.  Provide 100-position rotors and plugboard which are more difficult to       analyze.   7.  Facilitate masking control elements in messages. ( e.g., rotor settings,       etc. )
    This format required a method of converting input into 2-digit form. It wasdone by creating what are called "Character Sets". These are randomly organized setsof 100 characters ( upper and lowercase ) that appear on the keyboard. Theentire 100 positions are not used and the unused are filled with a seldom-used accentmark. One hundred sets are available in a file on floppy disk. The sets areused in both encryption and decryption to convert from and back to cleartext.

    Using 100 as a common feature, brought into use the digits 00 - 99 to identifyrotors, sets, tables and plugboard positions. Sets of these components have 100of each ( "00" means "100" ).

    The next feature was to provide for the unique rotation or non-rotation (movementof each rotor is randomly intermittent ) of each regular and the reversing rotor after each input. The Character Set also rotates so that doubles (like "oo" inbook ) are converted differently. Rotation is by a prime amount to 100 (2 and5 are not used ). Editing prevents using other numbers. An additional featurewas to provide a Rotor Display similar to the windows on the Enigma. This isprimarily informational but has proven to be helpful in de-bugging the program...and itdoes provide a sense of rotor movement.

    Another idea was borrowed from Mr. Hebern. That was the ability to "insert"rotors into the machine either forwards or backwards which doubles the number ofrotors in a given set. It was also possible to provide for a variable number ofrotors. An arbitrary limit of 12 was chosen but it would be possible to havemore (though that might be considered overkill ). The important thing here is thatit would be possible to employ from 1 to 12 rotors ( from a set of 100 ), dependingon the security desired. The rotor display automatically adjusts to theselected number.

    The next feature that was added was the ability to optionally superencipher theresulting numeric ciphertext. This involves replacing a 2-digit numeric cipherwith a 2-character alphabetic bigram (e.g., 36 to HK ). It also permits eachnumeric cipher to be represented by one of 6 or 7 bigrams (e.g., 36 could beHK, UM, RY, AU, ZM or BI ). The 7th bigram appears only for selected numericsbecause the 676 (26 x 26) possible bigrams are evenly distributed amongst the 100numerics. In addition, the use of a given bigram in a set for each numeric isincremented sequentially so using this example, the numeric "36" would beconverted to HK the first time it appears, to UM the second time, etc. Thefirst selection can start at any of the first 6 positions and it cycles around toposition 1 when position 6 or 7 is used. A SuperEnciphering Table (Figure 18)accomplishes this and there is a matching SuperDeciphering Table ( Figure 19 )to reverse it.

    Text input requires no use of the key and the computer buffer handlesrapid input so that the entry of clear or cipher text is faster than that of theoriginal Enigma. Input is displayed on the monitor and the resultingcipher/clear text is displayed immediately below so that it is possible to visually check it.If an error occurs, a simple procedure allows you to correct it without havingto re-type everything. A screenful of data consists of 6 sets of double lines( one input, one output ) double spaced with the sets separated by a dotted linefor clarity. There are 27 inputs per line for a total of 162. When the 159th- 161st are entered, a beep sounds to alert you to the approaching end of ascreen. This allows you to make a final check of the input for errors (and easilycorrect them) before entering the 162nd which triggers printing that screenful to paper.During the printing you can start entering the next screenful. A limit of 1943inputs ( 12 screenfuls less 1 ) was arbitrarily chosen for demonstrationpurposes (more would be possible, depending on memory available). This limit can beeasily set to a shorter value to control message length to make cryptanalysismore difficult.

    Printing is considered essential for the purpose of having a record of what wassent and how it was encrypted or decrypted ( e.g., was the cleartext enteredcorrectly and was the machine correctly set ? ). It also eliminates the needfor a second person to transcribe the output. Attached are four exhibits that areexamples of the printouts that can be produced:

             Exhibit A : Encryption into numeric form         Exhibit B : Decryption of Exhibit A         Exhibit C : Encryption in Superenciphered Form         Exhibit D : Decryption of Exhibit C
    Each exhibit is divided into the following parts:
             1.  The Heading:  This indicates whether it is encryption or             decryption,             and the date and time that the settings were entered .               This does not change for repeated use of the settings              for two or more consecutive messages.  To enter a             new date/time group or change the internal settings,              the program must be completely restarted.               (See A1, B1, C1 or D1 )         2.  The Internal Control Settings:  This indicates the number             of plugboard connections used, the specific plugboard              connections, the number of rotors used, the specific rotor             numbers in the position sequence and then each rotors              orientation (frontwards or backwards).  The reversing              rotor number is indicated.  Next, the unique rotation              value for each rotor and the reversing rotor are shown,              followed by the character set number and its rotation value.             These constitute the internal settings that would be              specified by the Signal Operating Instructions ( SOI ).               All of these settings generate an Internal Checksum which             is used to verify that the settings have been correctly             entered.             This checksum is printed.  If it does not agree with that             provided in the SOI, then all the settings must be              re-entered by restarting the program. Intermittent             rotation of each rotor is a function of the installed              rotors and previous entries and does not have to be              specified.         3.  The External Control Settings:  This lists the settings              that the operator selects and enters for the specific              message.  They consist of the Initial Settings of each             rotor and optionally the Superencipherment Table number              if it is used.  These settings add to the Internal Checksum              and produce an External Checksum in the form of a 2-digit             number ( mod-100 of the total sum ) that is sent with              the message.  The superencipherment table counter setting             is NOT included and is NOT sent because the recipient              does not have to know it.              (See A1, B1, C1, D1)        4.  The Input / Output Message Text:  This duplicates that             which appears on the monitor screen and is provided             primarily for a message audit ( to insure that the message            was entered correctly ).  Each "line" has 27 inputs with             the 27 outputs below.  Twenty-seven was used to provide            legibility on an 80-column screen. Six such "lines"             are possible for each screenful.              (See A1, B1, C1 or D1)        5.  The Message Control Data:  A count of the input characters            (message length ) is provided for both superenciphered and            non-superenciphered messages.
    However, only non-superenciphered (numeric ciphertext) messages have thefollowing additional data provided:

                 a.   A Hash Total which is a Mod-100 sum of the numeric                   cipher text.                  ( See A1, B1)             b.   A set of Column Check Totals which is the Mod-100                  sum of each of the 27 columns of cipher text.                    This is followed by a non-mod total of the columns.                   (See A2, A3, B2)             c.   A total of Row Check Totals which is the Mod-100                  sum of each row of cipher text. This is followed                   by a non-mod total of the rows.  (See A2,A3,B2)
    The purpose of providing column and row totals is to be able to locatetransmission garbles. They would be sent only if requested. Variances in anygiven column and row would locate the error by intersection.
           6.  The Message in Transmission Form:  This is what would be sent            and would contain only the External Control Settings (rotor            settings, superencipherment table number and external checksum),            the date and time group, the message ciphertext and the character           count.  The External Control Settings would be disguised by a            simple manual superencipherment that would be administrative and           outside the operation of the Enigma 95 ( i.e., prescribed by            the SOI ).  (See A3, C2 )  If it is decryption, the cleartext           message is presented with normal           horizontal spacing and vertically double spaced for convenient            reading.             (See B3, D2)       7.  Following this is an optional message analysis which is simply a           count of input and output characters.  This can be skipped and            was provided only to assist any system analysis.           (See A4 and C3)
    This completes the printing.

    Next displayed on the monitor is an option to re-use the Internal ControlSettings for another message ( it was assumed that these would remain in effect for aperiod of time as was the case for the Enigma ). If this is not selected, theprogram ends.

    HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

    The Enigma 95 is a program written in Microsoft QBasic. This was done so thatit could be run on any standard MS DOS computer using MS DOS 5 or higher ( QBasicis bundled with MS DOS ) thereby eliminating the need for a specialized computer.It fits onto a 3.5 inch floppy disc, together with the necessary data files thatconstitute the Regular Rotors Set, Reversing Rotors Set, Character Sets andSuperencipherment Tables. It is possible to also have on the same disk, theprograms that create these files and the necessary documentation ( .DOC ) textfiles for each one. This makes the Enigma 95 very portable, very inexpensiveand very easy to replicate.

    Any computer that will run MS DOS QBasic is suitable for the Enigma 95. A colormonitor is preferred but not essential. A printer is very useful, but could beeliminated if one is willing to copy output manually from the monitor screen (as the original Enigma required ).

    There is provided a program that produces a graphic representation of thecircuit path through the Enigma 95 and a program to produce pseudo-random numbers to usein programs that produce the rotor disks. Also included are programs to analyzethe Enigma 95.

    OPERATIONAL OVERVIEW OF THE ENIGMA 95

    The following is a run-through of the operating procedure, with the appropriateillustrations of the monitor screen at each meaningful step.

    1.  The computer is turned on, QBasic is selected and the Enigma95 program is    loaded and run.2.  You are asked to place the data files disk in the Drive B so that they will    be available.3.  You are then asked to enter the Internal Control Settings:        a.  Number of Plugboard Settings (1 to 50).  45 is optimum.        b.  The plugboard settings (from and to)         (Figure 1)
    SOI : ENTER THE NUMBER OF PLUGBOARD CONNECTIONS TO SET : 21 SET 1 : 1735 SET 11 : 2653 SET 21 : SET 2 : 2356 SET 12 : 4899 SET 3 : 4581 SET 13 : 6250 SET 4 : 9852 SET 14 : 4069 SET 5 : 3377 SET 15 : 3180 SET 6 : 5544 SET 16 : 9402 SET 7 : 6612 SET 17 : 8437 SET 8 : 5987 SET 18 : 9307 SET 9 : 3254 SET 19 : 8843 SET 10 : 6791 SET 20 : 8514
    Plugboard Positions not yet selected 01 03 04 05 06 08 09 10 11 13 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 27 28 29 30 34 36 38 39 41 42 46 47 49 51 57 58 60 61 63 64 65 68 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 78 79 82 83 86 89 90 92 95 96 97 00 Figure 1 c. Number of rotors to be used ( 1 to 12 ) d. The rotor number ( 1 to 100 ) for each position and its orientation ( 1=Fwd,2 = Bkwd ) e. The reversing rotor number ( 1 to 100 ) Figure 212 ROTORS ARE TO BE SELECTED FROM THE S.O.I. Select Rotor ( 1 to 100 ) and Orientation ( 1 or 2 ) IN THE SAME ENTRY For example : < RO > or < RRO > or < RRRO > < 71 > < 232 > < 1001 > ROTOR ORIENTATION Position No. 1 32 1 - Forward Position No. 2 49 2 - Backward Position No. 3 42 1 - Forward Position No. 4 98 1 - Forward Position No. 5 63 2 - Backward Position No. 6 94 2 - Backward Position No. 7 62 1 - Forward Position No. 9 4 1 - Forward Position No. 10 33 2 - Backward Position No. 11 25 1 - Forward Position No. 12 11 1 - Forward ENTER REVERSING ROTOR NUMBER (1 TO 100): 53Figure 2 f. The rotational shift value for each rotor ( a prime number between 0 and 97 inclusive less 2 and 5 ) Figure 3 (See the current S.O.I. for the values to use) SET ROTATIONAL SHIFT VALUES FOR EACH ROTOR POSITION USING THE FOLLOWING PRIME NUMBERS (EACH ONLY ONCE) 0,1,3,7,11,13,17,19,23,29,31,37,41,43,47,53,59,61,67,71,73,79,83,89,97 FOR ROTOR POSITION 1 : 07 FOR ROTOR POSITION 2 : 29 FOR ROTOR POSITION 3 : 01 FOR ROTOR POSITION 4 : 71 FOR ROTOR POSITION 5 : 17 FOR ROTOR POSITION 6 : 13 FOR ROTOR POSITION 7 : 11 FOR ROTOR POSITION 8 : 47 FOR ROTOR POSITION 9 : 03 FOR ROTOR POSITION 10 : 61 FOR ROTOR POSITION 11 : 23 FOR ROTOR POSITION 12 : 19 FOR REVERSING ROTOR : 31 Figure 3 g. The Character Set number ( 1 to 100 ) ( Figure 4 ) ( See S.O.I. ) ENTER CHARACTER SET NUMBER : 44Figure 4 h. The rotational value for the character set ( the same range as f.above ). (Figure 5 ) ( See the current S.O.I. for the values to use ) SET ROTATIONAL SHIFT VALUE FOR THE CHARACTER SET USING ONE OF THE FOLLOWING PRIME NUMBERS NOT USED FOR THE ROTORS 0,1,3,7,11,13,17,19,23,29,31,37,41,43,47,53,59,61,67,71,73,79,83,89,97 ROTATIONAL VALUE : 89Figure 54. You are then asked: DO YOU WANT TO (1) ENCIPHER OR (2) DECIPHER? a. Assuming that ( 1 ) is selected, a "random number" generator is presented to select numbers for use as Internal Settings. b. This is a sort of "spin the arrow" device to prevent bad selection of settings but any source of random numbers may be used. It is optional. It is skipped if (2) is selected.5. The Internal Checksum is displayed and then you are asked for the External Control Settings: a. Initial settings for the regular rotors ( 1 to 100 ). b. Initial setting for the reversing rotor ( 1 to 100 ).( Figure 6 ) Internal Checksum = 60354( See your list ) SET INITIAL ROTOR SETTINGS ( 1 TO 100 ) ROTOR 1 : 15 ROTOR 2 : 22 ROTOR 3 : 09 ROTOR 4 : 41 ROTOR 5 : 87 ROTOR 6 : 36 ROTOR 7 : 08 ROTOR 8 : 01 ROTOR 9 : 57 ROTOR 10 : 91 ROTOR 11 : 03 ROTOR 12 : 49 REVERSING ROTOR : 77 Figure 6 c. The Superencipherment Table number ( 1 to 100 ) if used, and d. The initial setting of the superencipherment table counter (1 to 6).Figure 7(See your list) ENTER SUPERENCIPHERMENT TABLE NUMBER : 35 SET INITIAL COUNT ( 1 TO 6 ) : 4Figure 76. The opening screen for beginning the message entry appears with: (Figure 8 ) a. The External Checksum. b. Instructions for starting and stopping text entry and makingcorrections. ENTERNAL CHECKSUM = 99 To stop operations and : 1. Print text : Press \ 2. Correct input : Press Shift & | Press ENTER key to start - or - to make the next screen Figure 87. After pressing , a blank screen will appear with the initial RotorDisplay at the bottom and START ENTERING MESSAGE will appear in the middle of the screen. Figure 9 START ENTERING MESSAGE Rotor Display 15 22 09 41 87 36 08 01 57 91 03 49 77Figure 98. At this point you can start entering text and see it appear on the monitor,starting at the upper left corner, and filling left to right. The input and its related output will appear simultaneously. At the bottom of the screen,above the rotor display, are instructions for ending the input and for making corrections to the input. There is also a count of input at the right corner.Figure 10 F O U R S C O R E A N D S E V E N Y E A R S A FM VQ ND OU UF OF EN MX FE ZR DO YD BS YW VO RB BB HC QI UR ZD BW BZ TQ EOWD RF G O , O U R F FW DP JA XW QN ZX OT DA WX Enter '\' to end message. Press 'Shift |' to make correction. Input No. 36 Rotor Display 41 73 31 61 44 79 62 00 11 72 25 67 04Figure 10
    Below is a listing ( in columns 4 through 16 ) of the 13 Rotor Displaywindows of the above 36 inputs, to show the intermittent movement of the rotors. SeeFigures 11and 12.
          Col. 1 is the Input No.      Col. 2 is the cleartext input.      Col. 3 is the Character Set conversion of the cleartext.      Cols. 4 - 15 are the Regular Rotor displays.      Col. 16 is the Reversing Rotor display.      Col. 17 is the numeric cipher output.      Col. 18 is the superenciphered output.
    When numbers are repeated in a rotor column, this indicates that the rotordid not rotate after that specific input. When rotation does occur, it rotatesthe amount previously set for that rotor. This illustration is not part of theregular operating display. It was used only as a test and to illustrateintermittent movement.

             Start       15  22  09  41  87  36  08  01  57  91  03  49   77                     --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   --         1  F  87    15  51  10  12  87  49  19  48  60  52  03  68   08    52 FM         2  O  26    15  51  11  83  87  49  19  48  63  52  03  68   39    18 VQ         3  U  64    15  51  12  54  04  62  19  48  66  52  03  68   70    06 ND         4  R  57    15  51  13  54  21  62  30  48  69  13  26  87   01    15 OU         5  S  79    22  80  14  25  21  62  30  95  69  13  26  06   32    03 UF         6  C  10    29  09  15  96  21  75  41  42  69  74  49  06   32    64 OF         7  O  81    29  09  15  96  38  75  41  42  69  35  49  06   32    69 EN         8  R  01    36  38  15  67  38  75  52  42  69  35  72  25   32    03 MX         9  E  65    36  38  15  38  38  75  63  42  72  96  72  44   32    92 FE        10     06    43  67  16  09  55  88  74  89  75  96  72  63   32    37 ZR        11  A  20    50  67  16  80  72  88  74  89  78  57  72  82   63    53 DO        12  N  12    50  96  16  80  89  88  85  89  81  18  95  01   94    34 YD        13  D  61    57  25  17  80  89  88  85  89  81  79  18  01   94    46 BS        14     50    57  25  18  51  06  88  96  89  81  79  18  20   94    93 YW        15  S  89    64  25  18  51  06  01  96  36  84  79  18  39   25    42 VO        16  E  42    64  54  19  22  23  14  96  36  84  40  18  39   25    65 RB        17  V  71    64  83  20  22  23  27  96  36  84  01  41  58   25    13 BB        18  E  64    64  83  21  93  40  40  96  83  84  62  64  77   56    66 HC        19  N  89    64  83  21  93  57  40  96  83  87  62  87  77   56    53 QI        20     16    71  12  22  64  57  53  07  30  87  62  10  96   56    20 UR        21  Y  84    71  12  22  64  74  53  07  30  90  23  10  15   56    60 ZD        22  E   8    78  12  22  35  91  66  07  77  93  23  10  34   56    93 BW        23  A  52    78  12  23  06  08  66  07  77  96  84  10  53   56    80 BZ        24  R  77    85  41  24  06  25  66  07  24  96  84  10  72   87    39 TQ        25  S  99    92  41  25  06  42  66  18  71  96  84  10  91   18    55 EO        26     82    92  70  25  06  59  66  29  18  96  84  33  10   18    20 WD        27  A  96    92  99  25  77  59  66  29  18  96  45  33  10   49    92 RF        28  G  65    99  99  26  77  76  66  29  65  99  06  33  29   49    01 FW        29  O  23    99  28  26  77  76  66  40  12  02  67  33  48   49    01 DP        30  '  36    06  57  27  77  93  66  40  59  05  28  56  67   80    65 JA        31     37    13  86  27  48  10  66  40  59  05  89  79  67   11    59 XW        32  O  56    20  15  28  19  10  66  40  06  08  50  79  67   11    18 QN        33  U  94    27  15  28  19  27  66  40  06  08  50  02  67   11    38 ZX        34  R  87    34  44  29  90  27  79  40  53  11  50  02  67   42    34 OT        35     81    34  44  30  61  27  79  51  53  11  11  02  67   73    28 DA        36  F  72    41  73  31  61  44  79  62  00  11  72  25  67   04    17 WX 
    Figure 11 - 13 - Figure 12 is the same as Figure 11 except that the repeated numbers ineach column have been replaced by a [] to indicate no movement to emphasize theirregular movement of each rotor.

             Rotor No.   01  02  03  04  05  06  07  08  09  10  11  12   RR         Rotation     7  29   1  71  17  13  11  47   3  61  23  19   31         Start Posn  15  22  09  41  87  36  08  01  57  91  03  49   77                     --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   --         1  F  87    []  51  10  12  []  49  19  48  60  52  []  68   08    52 FM         2  O  26    []  []  11  83  []  []  []  []  63  []  []  []   39    18 VQ         3  U  64    []  []  12  54  04  62  []  []  66  []  []  []   70    06 ND         4  R  57    []  []  13  []  21  []  30  []  69  13  26  87   01    15 OU         5  S  79    22  80  14  25  []  []  []  95  []  []  []  06   32    03 UF         6  C  10    29  09  15  96  []  75  41  42  []  74  49  []   []    64 OF         7  O  81    []  []  []  []  38  []  []  []  []  35  []  []   []    69 EN         8  R  01    36  38  []  67  []  []  52  []  []  []  72  25   []    03 MX         9  E  65    []  []  []  38  []  []  63  []  72  96  []  44   []    92 FE        10     06    43  67  16  09  55  88  74  89  75  []  []  63   []    37 ZR        11  A  20    50  []  []  80  72  []  []  []  78  57  []  82   63    53 DO        12  N  12    []  96  []  []  89  []  85  []  81  18  95  01   94    34 YD        13  D  61    57  25  17  []  []  []  []  []  []  79  18  []   []    46 BS        14     50    []  []  18  51  06  []  96  []  []  []  []  20   []    93 YW        15  S  89    64  []  []  []  []  01  []  36  84  []  []  39   25    42 VO        16  E  42    []  54  19  22  23  14  []  []  []  40  []  []   []    65 RB        17  V  71    []  83  20  []  []  27  []  []  []  01  41  58   []    13 BB        18  E  64    []  []  21  93  40  40  []  83  []  62  64  77   56    66 HC        19  N  89    []  []  []  []  57  []  []  []  87  []  87  []   []    53 QI        20     16    71  12  22  64  []  53  07  30  []  []  10  96   []    20 UR        21  Y  84    []  []  []  []  74  []  []  []  90  23  []  15   []    60 ZD        22  E   8    78  []  []  35  91  66  []  77  93  []  []  34   []    93 BW        23  A  52    []  []  23  06  08  []  []  []  96  84  []  53   []    80 BZ        24  R  77    85  41  24  []  25  []  []  24  []  []  []  72   87    39 TQ        25  S  99    92  []  25  []  42  []  18  71  []  []  []  91   18    55 EO        26     82    []  70  []  []  59  []  29  18  []  []  33  10   []    20 WD        27  A  96    []  99  []  77  []  []  []  []  []  45  []  []   49    92 RF        28  G  65    99  []  26  []  76  []  []  65  99  06  []  29   []    01 FW        29  O  23    []  28  []  []  []  []  40  12  02  67  []  48   []    01 DP        30  '  36    06  57  27  []  93  []  []  59  05  28  56  67   80    65 JA        31     37    13  86  []  48  10  []  []  []  []  89  79  []   11    59 XW        32  O  56    20  15  28  19  []  []  []  06  08  50  []  []   []    18 QN        33  U  94    27  []  []  []  27  []  []  []  []  []  02  []   []    38 ZX        34  R  87    34  44  29  90  []  79  []  53  11  []  []  []   42    34 OT        35     81    []  []  30  61  []  []  51  []  []  11  []  []   73    28 DA        36  F  72    41  73  31  []  44  []  62  00  []  72  25  []   04    17 WX        [] = no movement (repeated numbers)
    Figure 12
    9.  Corrections are made by pressing the " shift and | " keys    simultaneously. Light magenta numbers appear between the     lines of input and output so that you can identify where    the error is.  This position number ( note 37 below ) is    entered (Figure 13 ).      F  O  U  R  S  C  O  R  E     A  N  D     S  E  V  E  N     Y  E  A  R  S    A     01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2526 27     FM VQ ND OU UF OF EN MX FE ZR DO YD BS YW VO RB BB HC QI UR ZD BW BZ TQ EOWD RF          G  O  ,     O  U  R     F  U  R  F  A  Y  T  H  E  R  S     28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 5253 54     FW DP JA XW QN ZX OT DA WX MG LY QW KM WQ EL WM DG XB HY     55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 7980 81     82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 0607 08     09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 3334 35     36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 6061 62     Enter '\' to end message.   Press 'Shift |' to make correction. Input No. 46     ENTER THE (FIRST) POSITION TO CORRECT 37Figure 1310. The  key is pressed twice.  The screen will blank and then    automatically refill with "good" text up to that number and stop.    CONTINUE ENTERING MESSAGE will appear in the middle of the screen.    Entry of correct text is then continued from that    point onwards (Figure 14).      F  O  U  R  S  C  O  R  E     A  N  D     S  E  V  E  N     Y  E  A  R  S    A     FM VQ ND OU UF OF EN MX FE ZR DO YD BS YW VO RB BB HC QI UR ZD BW BZ TQ EOWD RF      G  O  ,     O  U  R     F     FW DP JA XW QN ZX OT DA WX                                 CONTINUE ENTERING MESSAGE     Enter '\' to end message.   Press 'Shift |' to make correction.  Input No. 36     Rotor Display   41   73   31   61   44   79   62   00   11   72   25   67                     04Figure 1411.  When the first screen is filled ( 162 characters input ) or is ended     with a backslash ( \ ), the above control settings, etc. are printed, followed by     the text screen.  As each subsequent screenful is completed it will be printed.     This continues until the end of the message is reached and the backslash ( \ )     key is pressed. This causes any partial screen to be printed before the message     control data, message form and other output is printed.     If Decipherment ( 2 ) is selected, the process is essentially the same     (entering control settings, etc.) except the input is ciphertext and the output is     cleartext. Message Control Data is available but message analysis is not.

    ROTORS, SETS AND TABLES

    The term "data files" encompasses the files that constitute the 100 eachgroupings of Regular Rotors, Reversing Rotors, Character Sets and SuperenciphermentTables that are used by Enigma 95. They have been described earlier and now they arepresented for inspection. They were used in the examples discussed earlier.

      A  From  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2324 25          -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- --  B  To   58 28 56 40 80 78 05 92 49 31 14 93 30 77 62 64 79 25 13 22 41 65 2943 39  A  From 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 4849 50          -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- --  B  To   51 19 73 02 01 42 83 94 08 69 04 07 66 57 84 26 54 44 09 68 85 52 3403 46  A  From 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 7374 75          -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- --  B  To   27 10 17 70 37 23 06 38 59 97 91 71 95 88 96 32 45 18 82 53 61 99 8112 16  A  From 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 9899 00          -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- --  B  To   36 60 24 48 67 33 11 72 63 76 21 75 87 86 00 50 47 35 98 90 89 74 2055 15                           Figure 15 - Regular Rotor No.  32      The "To" position indicates the position on the rotor's opposite face toachieve theoffset effect.      (For example, position 1 on face A is connected to position 58 on face B)     From  01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2324 25           -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- --     To    48 65 34 39 86 95 82 51 12 71 17 09 90 26 43 42 11 91 67 60 59 89 8725 24     From  26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 4849 50           -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- --     To    14 83 78 99 72 77 61 35 03 33 53 57 97 04 50 96 16 15 93 49 62 54 0145 40     From  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 7374 75           -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- --     To    08 70 36 47 63 69 37 73 21 20 32 46 55 85 02 00 19 92 56 52 10 30 5879 84     From  76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 9899 00           -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- --     To    98 31 28 74 94 88 07 27 75 64 05 23 81 22 13 18 68 44 80 06 41 38 7629 66                        Figure 16 - Reversing Rotor No.  53      The "To" position indicates the connecting position on the same face to      achieve the offset effect.(For example, Positions 1 and 48 are connected,      2 and 65 are connected, etc.)         Posn  01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20               -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --         Char  #  q  .  c  j  t     +  9  A  *  4  f  r  O  ~  ,  {  8  d         Posn  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40               -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --         Char  y  o  5  R  n  h  w  X  D  p  g  M  ~  3  S  e  m  l  T  -         Posn  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60               -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --         Char  [  U  1  &  @  /  z  ~  ~  Q  a  =  P  !  C  7  ~  0  K  u         Posn  61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80               -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --         Char  B  '  ~  Y  s  b  <  G  W  v  ?  I  ~  H  (  >  E  :  ~  x         Posn  81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00               -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --         Char  }  L  J  ~  k  Z  F  ~  _  )  N  ~  2  ;  V  i  6  ]  %  $                          Figure 17 - Character Set No. 44      "Posn" is the position value the Character is converted to when it is      input. The characters "rotate" afterwards so that character position       values change.This figure shows the set before the first input.      Letter "A" = 10 initially.  After the first input, "A" = "99", then "88" (      For a rotation values of 89 ), etc.         01  02  03  04  05  06  07               01  02  03  04  05  06  07         --  --  --  --  --  --  --               --  --  --  --  --  --  --    01   HO  HI  BV  FW  DP  PX  BK          51   AO  YC  JI  VC  CT  ET  IX    02   EF  DS  SJ  QJ  MK  BH  GS          52   DD  NO  NL  FM  XA  EM    03   BG  HD  EP  UF  MX  YB  WV          53   NT  PJ  CJ  DO  QI  AN  FC    04   JG  OO  TI  QW  UJ  IQ              54   TD  VR  TV  QG  EE  JU  RK    05   VW  ZL  BX  LD  KF  TL  CM          55   QD  GE  MD  EO  OX  JW  IH    06   DQ  XZ  CK  ND  AM  MH  LE          56   XP  BL  UN  FQ  KR  MV    07   WO  FH  PT  FY  WN  GN  SI          57   OL  CH  SU  NI  GX  HZ  DU    08   UW  FN  RA  YU  YR  ZZ              58   MS  MJ  FA  EW  TY  YX  WJ    09   WB  DZ  OJ  LU  QL  WZ  SK          59   VA  TO  OI  XW  ZQ  ZA  WG    10   XG  KL  OB  RE  QP  UQ  JH          60   RJ  IK  YH  ZD  SR  HJ    11   FU  WI  QS  MP  UX  ZH  IF          61   M0  AA  NZ  AP  IV  JB  VS    12   KP  OA  SF  IG  SO  FS              62   DE  LF  FO  UP  EV  CB  GB    13   CY  BJ  TJ  BB  KQ  WE  PA          63   GH  UV  IM  OE  XL  ST  QF    14   NK  BQ  HA  HU  FG  XS  CN          64   GF  TX  NS  OF  NU  VY    15   VU  FI  UB  OU  YV  GT  PH          65   SG  KC  MN  RB  JA  KE  TE    16   UH  PI  RU  LC  HB  NJ              66   VX  CW  QO  HC  BM  SC  ES    17   LQ  NM  UD  WX  WM  EH  PQ          67   VJ  PF  QQ  QR  LS  XI  BE    18   CF  HM  DY  VQ  QN  HW  AS          68   LJ  LV  ZT  LY  DM  WC    19   JV  CX  ED  XC  OG  ID  KS          69   JN  YG  XV  EN  FL  AB  TT    20   HH  AX  AJ  UR  WD  MY              70   VP  AT  GL  PO  KI  IY  WK    21   YY  KA  NF  AI  VT  ZO  TM          71   ME  UU  SX  XN  RN  HE  KD    22   ER  DX  JF  QK  TF  MA  FT          72   YI  QA  GA  EL  KO  QH    23   HF  OH  DC  VM  VD  VG  RR          73   LX  CS  FK  PE  JO  YN  VK    24   JX  FZ  SD  UZ  DN  FX              74   WU  LT  DR  ZC  IE  BC  XK    25   RG  PG  HX  RM  IJ  RQ  LZ          75   XR  US  KG  EQ  JZ  QT  MB    26   KX  YA  GO  XQ  OM  FD  NC          76   CP  IU  PK  ZN  IZ  AW    27   IA  BP  PZ  II  KH  PP  IO          77   GU  QB  EY  ZV  LM  XF  TG    28   MM  UL  IT  DA  GQ  IB              78   EC  SS  VH  NP  PS  ZI  ON    29   IW  CU  IC  GI  KY  BR  CL          79   MR  TU  NW  AY  QM  ZY  BY    30   KJ  PL  JE  DJ  RT  XU  PU          80   QC  OD  RW  BZ  CZ  SW    31   CE  JK  WS  UT  AD  AK  JJ          81   ZP  SA  XO  YZ  NG  EU  QE    32   UK  XJ  PR  JY  XY  SQ              82   GJ  ZW  RX  RH  EK  AC  JC    33   WL  KV  LG  YM  NR  BA  EB          83   TA  OS  KZ  CQ  UA  WP  AV    34   IP  CR  LB  YD  OT  XB  GC          84   TK  OW  AH  UY  HP  DW    35   QU  YP  JT  VB  KT  AR  VI          85   FR  WW  PY  KM  WQ  MQ  LN    36   HK  UM  RY  AU  ZM  BI              86   SY  GZ  TR  RC  BO  UC  EI    37   MZ  PD  YK  ZR  UE  JL  NA          87   AQ  DV  RD  YL  RO  PM  KK    38   OC  TZ  DF  ZX  CC  NB  IS          88   KU  CA  CQ  MG  QV  YS    39   BF  XE  NH  TQ  HN  SE  JM          89   NV  BU  GK  EJ  GR  LW  MW    40   SL  LI  WF  NQ  NN  XT              90   PB  OR  TB  RV  VN  CV  VL    41   MF  MC  WH  OZ  VE  ZG  AG          91   DL  TN  DB  LP  YO  LH  LL    42   HG  GD  GG  VO  OQ  UO  HS          92   QZ  DI  XM  FE  RF  WA    43   HL  SM  VF  SZ  PW  HV  RL          93   YQ  MI  NX  YW  BW  PN  GY    44   KW  JQ  SN  ZB  BD  VZ              94   LO  JS  GV  YE  ML  YT  FP    45   WY  EZ  SB  AZ  GW  ZS  ZF          95   OV  JD  DT  DG  QX  PV  JR    46   OP  NE  GP  BS  RS  CO  HQ          96   NY  EA  MU  AL  FJ  CD    47   LK  YJ  IN  ZJ  XH  CI  PC          97   OY  KB  ZU  HY  GM  QY  TW    48   RI  WT  FF  RP  SH  EX              98   FB  TS  HR  UG  TH  BN  IL    49   MT  XD  ZE  WR  AF  DH  RZ          99   EG  YF  IR  LR  SP  TC  LA    50   DK  ZK  UI  JP  VV  HT  TP          00   AE  KN  SV  FV  XX  BT  OK                     Figure 18 - Superencipherment  Table No. 35      The left column is the numeric cipher.  The other  7 columns are the      possible super encipherments. 36 can be converted to HK , UM , RY , AU , ZM , BI in      turn, depending on where the counter starts. A blank causes the counter to       be reset to 1.     A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y Z    -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- A  61 69 82 31 00 49 41 84 21 20 31 96 06 53 51 61 87 35 18 70 36 83 76 20 7945  A B  33 13 74 44 67 39 03 02 36 13 01 56 66 98 86 27 14 29 46 00 89 01 93 05 7980  B C  88 62 38 96 31 18 88 57 47 53 06 29 05 14 46 76 83 34 73 51 29 90 66 19 1380  C D  28 91 23 52 62 38 95 49 92 30 50 91 68 24 53 01 06 74 02 95 57 87 84 22 1809  D E  96 33 78 19 54 02 99 17 86 89 82 72 52 69 55 03 75 22 66 51 81 62 58 48 7745  E F  58 98 53 26 92 48 14 07 15 96 73 69 52 08 62 94 56 85 12 22 11 00 01 24 0724  F G  72 62 34 42 55 64 42 63 29 82 89 70 97 07 26 46 28 89 02 15 77 94 45 57 9386  G H  14 16 66 03 71 23 42 20 01 60 36 43 18 39 01 84 46 98 42 50 14 43 18 25 9757  H I  27 28 29 19 74 11 12 55 27 25 60 98 63 47 27 34 04 99 38 28 76 61 29 51 7076  I J  65 61 82 95 30 22 04 10 51 31 31 37 39 69 73 50 44 95 94 35 54 19 55 24 3275  J K  21 97 65 71 65 05 75 27 70 30 87 10 85 00 72 12 13 56 19 35 88 33 44 26 2983  K L  99 34 16 05 06 62 33 91 40 68 47 91 77 85 94 91 17 99 67 74 09 68 89 73 6825  L M  22 75 41 55 71 41 88 06 93 58 02 94 28 65 61 11 85 79 58 49 96 56 89 03 2037  M N  37 38 26 06 46 21 81 39 57 16 14 52 17 40 52 78 40 33 64 53 64 89 79 93 9661  N O  12 10 38 80 63 64 19 23 59 09 00 57 26 78 04 46 42 90 83 34 15 95 84 55 9741  O P  13 90 47 37 73 67 25 15 16 53 76 30 87 93 70 27 17 32 78 07 30 95 43 01 8527  P Q  72 77 80 55 81 63 54 72 53 02 22 09 79 18 66 10 67 67 11 75 35 88 04 95 9792  Q R  08 65 86 87 10 92 25 82 48 60 54 43 25 71 87 48 25 23 46 30 16 90 80 82 3649  R S  81 45 66 24 39 12 65 48 07 02 09 40 43 44 12 99 32 60 78 63 57 00 80 71 8643  S T  83 90 99 54 65 22 77 98 04 13 84 05 21 91 59 50 39 86 98 69 79 54 97 64 5838  T U  83 15 86 17 37 03 98 16 50 04 32 28 36 56 42 62 10 20 75 31 71 63 08 11 8424  U V  59 35 51 23 41 43 23 78 35 67 73 90 23 90 42 70 18 54 61 21 15 50 05 66 6444  V W  92 09 68 20 13 40 59 41 11 58 70 33 17 07 07 83 85 49 31 48 74 03 85 17 4509  W X  52 34 19 49 39 77 10 47 67 32 74 63 92 71 81 56 26 75 14 40 30 69 59 00 3206  X Y  26 03 51 34 94 99 69 60 72 47 37 87 33 73 91 35 93 08 88 94 08 15 93 58 2181  Y Z  59 44 74 60 49 45 41 11 78 47 50 05 36 76 21 81 59 37 45 68 97 77 82 38 7908  Z    -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ----     A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y Z
    Figure 19 - Superdecipherment Table 35 First letter at left. Second letter at top. Numeric cipher at intersection ( HK, UM, RY, etc. = 36 ) The Enigma rotor operation principle has probably been long superseded by much more sophisticated methods of encryption that are faster and more secure, but it will remain interesting for a long time to amateurs such as myself. It is something that is understandable and before the advent of the computer, resulted in some beautiful machines. The Enigma 95 is not one now, but I believe that it could be "translated" into a handsome electro-mechanical device. It is something to dream about. The only absolutely secure cipher is the One Time Pad and it has the disadvantage of requiring copies to be destroyed after one use. The Enigma 95 is an attempt to approach this holy Grail of cryptography by providing an almost unlimited supply of enhanced (both in size and method of rotation) Rotors, Character Sets, Superencipherment Tables and a lengthened Plugboard. While I cannot prove it mathematically or otherwise, I suspect that the ability to use almost unlimited expendable sets of all possible combinations of these for very limited periods (throw away feature) such as is possible in the Enigma 95, would strengthen any cipher considerably by preventing the accumulation of sufficient material on which to base an in-depth cryptanalysis. Any comments would appreciated.

    AT THE CRYPTO DROP BOX IS

    The disk accompanying this article contains ENIGMA 95 and the necessarysupporting files needed in its operation. Also included are program files to create themand to analyze and test its operation. DOC files are included for each file to explainthem. Start with CRYPTO.1ST, then read ENIGMA95.DOC and study ENIGMA95.FLO togain an understanding of Enigma 95 before running it. The list of files is:

    CRYPTO.1ST             :  An outline of the files that constitute Enigma 95systemENIGMA95.DOC           :  Detailed documentation pertaining to ENIGMA95ENIGMA95.FLO           :  A flowchart of the ENIGMA95 operationENIGMA95.BAS  *        :  ENIGMA95ROTORS.DAT             :  Set of 100 Regular RotorsREVROTRS.DAT           :  Set of 100 Reversing RotorsCHARS.DAT              :  Set of 100 Character SetsCODE.DAT               :  Set of 100 Super Encipherment TablesCRYPTO05.BAS  *  :  Random Numbers Generator for CRYPTO27 & CRYPTO34CRYPTO27.BAS  *  :  Regular Rotor Creation using the Interval MethodCRYPTO28.BAS  *  :  Super Encipherment Tables CreationCRYPTO30.BAS  *  :  Character Set CreationCRYPTO34.BAS  *  :  Reversing Rotor CreationCRYPTO43.BAS  *  :  ENIGMA95 Cipher Machine Data Paths DemonstratorCRYPTO45.BAS  *  :  Rotors Matching AnalysisCRYPTO47.BAS  *  :  Check of Rotor Files for ErrorsCRYPTO48.BAS  *  :  Analysis of Cleartext vs. CiphertextCRYPTO49.BAS  *  :  Rotor Intermittent Movement TestCRYPTO51.BAS     :  Plugboard CombinationsENIGMA95.WRI      :  The article about Enigma 95.  ( Created using Windows 3.1Write )               * = Has a matching .DOC file      The .1st , .DOC and .FLO files are DOS files            The .BAS and .DAT files are QBASIC or QUICKBASIC  files            The .WRI file is a WINDOWS 3.1 Write fileENCRYPTION                                           10-31-1995  16:36:57  Hours
    No. of PB Connections 21Plugboard Connections (1735) (2356) (4581) (9852) (3377) (5544) (6612) (5987) (3254) (6791) (2653) (4899) (6250) (4069) (3180) (9402) (8437) (9307) (8843) (8514) (2176)No. of Rotors 12Rotors Sequence 32 49 42 98 63 94 62 60 04 33 25 11Rotors Orientation 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1Reversing Rotor No. 53Rotors Rotation Values 07 29 01 71 17 13 11 47 03 61 23 19Rev Rotor Rotation Value 31Character Set (CS) No. 44CS Rotation Value 89 Internal Checksum 60354
    Rotors Initial Settings 15 22 09 41 87 36 08 01 57 91 03 49Rev Rotor Initial Setting 77External Checksum 64
    F O U R S C O R E A N D S E V E N Y E A R S A52 18 06 15 03 64 69 03 92 37 53 34 46 93 42 65 13 66 53 20 60 93 80 39 55 20 92
    G O , O U R F O R E F A T H E R S B R O U G H T01 01 65 59 18 38 34 28 17 43 63 98 60 64 41 31 11 13 56 20 34 65 57 72 73 95 10
    F O R T H U P O N T H I S C O N T I N E N T53 19 21 23 57 21 59 32 96 45 50 23 79 29 01 92 30 12 30 42 04 58 82 66 86 40 28
    A N E W N A T I O N . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( * )27 86 23 88 28 11 26 30 91 76 90 06 96 83 85 74 48 64 96 82 80 53 00 59 25 74 73
    TOTAL INPUT CHARACTERS IS 108 HASH TOTAL OF CODE IS 02 EXHIBIT A-1COL CHECK TOTALS33 24 15 85 06 34 88 93 96 01 56 61 81 69 69 62 02 55 35 64 78 69 19 36 39 29 03TOTAL COLUMNS = 5202ROW CHECK TOTALS83 67 78 74TOTAL ROWS = 5202 EXHIBIT A-2================================= SEPARATE PAGE ================================ FOR TRANSMISSION AS MESSAGE No.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 22 09 41 87 36 08 01 57 91 03 49 77 64 10 31 95 16 36 57--------------------------------------------------------------------------------52 18 06 15 03 64 69 03 92 37 53 34 46 93 42 65 13 66 53 20 60 93 80 39 55 20 9201 01 65 59 18 38 34 28 17 43 63 98 60 64 41 31 11 13 56 20 34 65 57 72 73 95 1053 19 21 23 57 21 59 32 96 45 50 23 79 29 01 92 30 12 30 42 04 58 82 66 86 40 2827 86 23 88 28 11 26 30 91 76 91 06 96 83 85 74 48 64 96 82 80 53 00 59 25 74 73 108 02--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Column and row totals. Do not transmit unless requested.33 24 15 85 06 34 88 93 96 01 56 61 81 69 69 62 02 55 35 64 78 69 19 36 39 29 0383 67 78 74 EXHIBIT A-3 INPUT FREQUENCY ANALYSIS| Char Freq | Char Freq | Char Freq | Char Freq | Char Freq || ---- ---- | ---- ---- | ---- ---- | ---- ---- | ---- ---- || A 6 | U 4 | ; | k | ? || B 1 | V 1 | ' | l | ( 1 || C 2 | W 1 | = | m | ) 1 || D 1 | X | ! | n | { || E 8 | Y 1 | @ | o | } || F 4 | Z | # | p | < || G 2 | 0 1 | $ | q | > || H 4 | 1 1 | % | r | [ || I 3 | 2 1 | & | s | ] || J | 3 1 | * 1 | t | ~ || K | 4 1 | a | u | ~ || L | 5 1 | b | v | ~ || M | 6 1 | c | w | ~ || N 9 | 7 1 | d | x | ~ || O 10 | 8 1 | e | y | ~ || P 1 | 9 1 | f | z | ~ || Q | space 15 | g | _ | ~ || R 8 | . 1 | h | - | ~ || S 5 | , 1 | i | + | ~ || T 7 | : | j | / | ~ |Total = 108 OUTPUT FREQUENCY ANALYSIS Code Count Code Count Code Count Code Count CodeCount|---------------|----------------|----------------|----------------|----------------|| 1 = 3 | 21 = 2 | 41 = 1 | 61 = | 81 = || 2 = | 22 = | 42 = 2 | 62 = | 82 = 2 || 3 = 2 | 23 = 3 | 43 = 1 | 63 = 1 | 83 = 1 || 4 = 1 | 24 = | 44 = | 64 = 3 | 84 = || 5 = | 25 = 1 | 45 = 1 | 65 = 3 | 85 = 1 || 6 = 2 | 26 = 1 | 46 = 1 | 66 = 2 | 86 = 2 || 7 = | 27 = 1 | 47 = | 67 = | 87 = || 8 = | 28 = 3 | 48 = 1 | 68 = | 88 = 1 || 9 = | 29 = 1 | 49 = | 69 = 1 | 89 = || 10 = 1 | 30 = 3 | 50 = 1 | 70 = | 90 = 1 || 11 = 2 | 31 = 1 | 51 = | 71 = | 91 = 1 || 12 = 1 | 32 = 1 | 52 = 1 | 72 = 1 | 92 = 3 || 13 = 2 | 33 = | 53 = 4 | 73 = 2 | 93 = 2 || 14 = | 34 = 3 | 54 = | 74 = 2 | 94 = || 15 = 1 | 35 = | 55 = 1 | 75 = | 95 = 1 || 16 = | 36 = | 56 = 1 | 76 = 1 | 96 = 3 || 17 = 1 | 37 = 1 | 57 = 2 | 77 = | 97 = || 18 = 2 | 38 = 1 | 58 = 1 | 78 = | 98 = 1 || 19 = 1 | 39 = 1 | 59 = 3 | 79 = 1 | 99 = || 20 = 3 | 40 = 1 | 60 = 2 | 80 = 2 | 00 = 1 |Total = 108 EXHIBIT A-4DECRYPTION 10-31-1995 17:00:58 Hours--------------------------------------------------------------------------------No. of PB Connections 21Plugboard Connections (1735) (2356) (4581) (9852) (3377) (5544) (6612) (5987) (3254) (6791) (2653) (4899) (6250) (4069) (3180) (9402) (8437) (9307) (8843) (8514) (2176)No. of Rotors 12Rotors Sequence 32 49 42 98 63 94 62 60 04 33 25 11Rotors Orientation 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1Reversing Rotor No. 53Rotors Rotation Values 07 29 01 71 17 13 11 47 03 61 23 19Rev Rotor Rotation Value 31Character Set (CS) No. 44CS Rotation Value 89 Internal Checksum 60354--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rotors Initial Settings 15 22 09 41 87 36 08 01 57 91 03 49Rev Rotor Initial Setting 77External Checksum 64--------------------------------------------------------------------------------52 18 06 15 03 64 69 03 92 37 53 34 46 93 42 65 13 66 53 20 60 93 80 39 55 20 92F O U R S C O R E A N D S E V E N Y E A R S A--------------------------------------------------------------------------------01 01 65 59 18 38 34 28 17 43 63 98 60 64 41 31 11 13 56 20 34 65 57 72 73 95 10G O , O U R F O R E F A T H E R S B R O U G H T--------------------------------------------------------------------------------53 19 21 23 57 21 59 32 96 45 50 23 79 29 01 92 30 12 30 42 04 58 82 66 86 40 28 F O R T H U P O N T H I S C O N T I N E N T--------------------------------------------------------------------------------27 86 23 88 28 11 26 30 91 76 90 06 96 83 85 74 48 64 96 82 80 53 00 59 25 74 73A N E W N A T I O N . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( * )--------------------------------------------------------------------------------TOTAL INPUT CHARACTERS IS 108 HASH TOTAL OF CODE IS 02 EXHIBIT B-1COL CHECK TOTALS33 24 15 85 06 34 88 93 96 01 56 61 81 69 69 62 02 55 35 64 78 69 19 36 39 29 03TOTAL COLUMNS = 5202ROW CHECK TOTALS83 67 78 74TOTAL ROWS = 5202 EXHIBIT B-2================================= SEPARATE PAGE ================================Messsage No.--------------------From----------------------------------Date/Timeof Receipt: :: / :: :: / :------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------FOURSCORE AND SEVEN YEARS AGO, OUR FOREFATHERS BROUGHT FORTH UPON THIS CONTINENTA NEW NATION. 1234567890(*) EXHIBIT B-3ENCRYPTION 10-31-1995 16:36:57 Hours--------------------------------------------------------------------------------No. of PB Connections 21Plugboard Connections (1735) (2356) (4581) (9852) (3377) (5544) (6612) (5987) (3254) (6791) (2653) (4899) (6250) (4069) (3180) (9402) (8437) (9307) (8843) (8514) (2176)No. of Rotors 12Rotors Sequence 32 49 42 98 63 94 62 60 04 33 25 11Rotors Orientation 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1Reversing Rotor No. 53Rotors Rotation Values 07 29 01 71 17 13 11 47 03 61 23 19Rev Rotor Rotation Value 31Character Set (CS) No. 44CS Rotation Value 89 Internal Checksum 60354--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rotors Initial Settings 15 22 09 41 87 36 08 01 57 91 03 49Rev Rotor Initial Setting 77Super Encipher Table No. 35External Checksum 99--------------------------------------------------------------------------------F O U R S C O R E A N D S E V E N Y E A R S AFM VQ ND OU UF OF EN MX FE ZR DO YD BS YW VO RB BB HC QI UR ZD BW BZ TQ EO WD RF--------------------------------------------------------------------------------G O , O U R F O R E F A T H E R S B R O U G H TFW DP JA XW QN ZX OT DA WX SZ OE UG SR NU OZ UT MP KQ FQ MY XB KE NI EL PE DG RE-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- F O R T H U P O N T H I S C O N T I N E N TAN XC AI VM GX VT ZQ JY AL AZ JP VD AY GI PX WA DJ IG RT OQ QW EW RH BM RC NQ GQ--------------------------------------------------------------------------------A N E W N A T I O N . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( * )II BO VG MG IB UX XQ XU LP ZN RV AM FJ CQ KM ZC RP VY CD EK CZ FC FV ZA RM IE JO--------------------------------------------------------------------------------TOTAL INPUT CHARACTERS IS 108 EXHIBIT C-1 FOR TRANSMISSION AS MESSAGE No.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 22 09 41 87 36 08 01 57 91 03 49 77 35 99 10 31 95 17 00 58--------------------------------------------------------------------------------FM VQ ND OU UF OF EN MX FE ZR DO YD BS YW VO RB BB HC QI UR ZD BW BZ TQ EO WD RFFW DP JA XW QN ZX OT DA WX SZ OE UG SR NU OZ UT MP KQ FQ MY XB KE NI EL PE DG REAN XC AI VM GX VT ZQ JY AL AZ JP VD AY GI PX WA DJ IG RT OQ QW EW RH BM RC NQ GQII BO VG MG IB UX XQ XU LP ZN RV AM FJ CQ KM ZC RP VY CD EK CZ FC FV ZA RM IE JO108 EXHIBIT C-2 INPUT FREQUENCY ANALYSIS| Char Freq | Char Freq | Char Freq | Char Freq | Char Freq || ---- ---- | ---- ---- | ---- ---- | ---- ---- | ---- ---- || A 6 | U 4 | ; | k | ? || B 1 | V 1 | ' | l | ( 1 || C 2 | W 1 | = | m | ) 1 || D 1 | X | ! | n | { || E 8 | Y 1 | @ | o | } || F 4 | Z | # | p | < || G 2 | 0 1 | $ | q | > || H 4 | 1 1 | % | r | [ || I 3 | 2 1 | & | s | ] || J | 3 1 | * 1 | t | ~ || K | 4 1 | a | u | ~ || L | 5 1 | b | v | ~ || M | 6 1 | c | w | ~ || N 9 | 7 1 | d | x | ~ || O 10 | 8 1 | e | y | ~ || P 1 | 9 1 | f | z | ~ || Q | space 15 | g | _ | ~ || R 8 | . 1 | h | - | ~ || S 5 | , 1 | i | + | ~ || T 7 | : | j | / | ~ |Total = 108 OUTPUT FREQUENCY ANALYSIS\2 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Total1\ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -----A 1 1 1 1 1 1 6B 1 1 1 1 1 1 6C 1 1 1 3D 1 1 1 1 1 5E 1 1 1 1 1 5F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7G 1 1 1 3H 1 1I 1 1 1 1 4J 1 1 1 1 4K 1 1 1 3L 1 1M 1 1 1 1 4N 1 1 1 1 4O 1 1 1 1 1 1 6P 1 1 2Q 1 1 1 3R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9S 1 1 2T 1 1U 1 1 1 1 1 5V 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7W 1 1 1 3X 1 1 1 1 1 5Y 1 1 2Z 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ----- A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Total -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ----- 4 4 5 6 6 3 5 1 5 2 1 2 6 4 5 5 10 3 1 4 3 2 6 6 4 5 108 EXHIBIT C-3DECRYPTION 10-31-1995 17:36:57 Hours--------------------------------------------------------------------------------No. of PB Connections 21Plugboard Connections (1735) (2356) (4581) (9852) (3377) (5544) (6612) (5987) (3254) (6791) (2653) (4899) (6250) (4069) (3180) (9402) (8437) (9307) (8843) (8514) (2176)No. of Rotors 12Rotors Sequence 32 49 42 98 63 94 62 60 04 33 25 11Rotors Orientation 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1Reversing Rotor No. 53Rotors Rotation Values 07 29 01 71 17 13 11 47 03 61 23 19Rev Rotor Rotation Value 31Character Set (CS) No. 44CS Rotation Value 89 Internal Checksum 60354--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rotors Initial Settings 15 22 09 41 87 36 08 01 57 91 03 49Rev Rotor Initial Setting 77Super Encipher Table No. 35External Checksum 99--------------------------------------------------------------------------------FM VQ ND OU UF OF EN MX FE ZR DO YD BS YW VO RB BB HC QI UR ZD BW BZ TQ EO WD RFF O U R S C O R E A N D S E V E N Y E A R S A--------------------------------------------------------------------------------FW DP JA XW QN ZX OT DA WX SZ OE UG SR NU OZ UT MP KQ FQ MY XB KE NI EL PE DG REG O , O U R F O R E F A T H E R S B R O U G H T--------------------------------------------------------------------------------AN XC AI VM GX VT ZQ JY AL AZ JP VD AY GI PX WA DJ IG RT OQ QW EW RH BM RC NQ GQ F O R T H U P O N T H I S C O N T I N E N T--------------------------------------------------------------------------------A N E W N A T I O N . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( * )II BO VG MG IB UX XQ XU LP ZN RV AM FJ CQ KM ZC RP VY CD EK CZ FC FV ZA RM IE JO--------------------------------------------------------------------------------TOTAL INPUT CHARACTERS IS 108 EXHIBIT D-1Messsage No.--------------------From----------------------------------Date/Timeof Receipt: :: / :: :: / :--------------------------------------------------------------------------------FOURSCORE AND SEVEN YEARS AGO, OUR FOREFATHERS BROUGHT FORTH UPON THIS CONTINENTA NEW NATION. 1234567890(*)

    SOLUTIONS TO LECTURE 8 PROBLEMS

    Thanks to GRAPE JUICE for the quick and clear reply:C-1 Give two solutions to: (BE)**2 = ARE A>0 , B= 1...3, E>0, R>0(16) ** 2 = 256 and (31) ** 2 = 961C-2 Square root: [OKLA] [OKLI] R, A, T, S A= E+1 +4,9 ----------- B |Q UA RT ET E -A I > A ----- O=0 T UA Q >A, T -T SI R =2,3 ----- S U RT T -A UT U =S+1 > A, E ----- T E AO ET U -E ES UB --------- R AR 2 4 1 7 4=4,9 + ------------ 9> 1 | 5 84 21 31 3 -4 6 ---------------- 0=0 1 84 5>4,1 -1 76 2=2,3 ---------------- 7 1 8 21 8=7+1 >4,3 =7,8 -4 81 1 ---------------- 8 3 40 31 -3 37 89 ---------------- 2 42A B E I O Q R S T U 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 T R E A Q I S U B OA B E I O Q R S T U 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 O T R E A Q I S U BA B E I O Q R S T U 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 O B U S I Q A E R TA B E I O Q R S T U 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 B U S I Q A E R T OFrom Sinkov [SINK] two Hill system problems:Hill-1Decipher the message: YITJP GWJOW FAQTQ XCSMA ETSQUSQAPU SQGKC PQTYJUse the deciphering matrix | 5 1 | | 2 7 |Let A =1, B=2... Z=26P1 = 5(C1) + 1(C2)P2 = 2(C1) + 7(C2)5(Y) + 1(I) = 5(25) + 1(9) = 125 + 9 =134 MOD 26 = 4 = D2(Y) + 7(I) = 2(25) + 7(9) = 50 + 63 =113 MOD 26 = 9 = I5(T) + 1(J) = 5(20) + 1(10) = 100 + 10=110 MOD 26 = 6 = F2(T) + 7(J) = 2(20) + 7(10) = 40 + 70 =110 MOD 26 = 6 = FDifficulties are things that show what men are. Hill-2Decipher the message: MWALO LIAIW WTGBH JNTAK QZJKA ADAWSSKQKU AYARN CSODN IIAES OQKJY BUse the deciphering matrix | 2 23 |use A=1, B=2, ...Z=26P1 = 2(C1) +23(C2)P2 = 21(C1) +7(C2)2(M) + 23(W) =2(13) + 23(23) =26 + 529 = 555 MOD 26 = 9 = I21(M) +7(W) =21(13) + 7(23) =273 + 161 = 434 MOD 26 =18 = R2(A) + 23(L) = 2(1) + 23(12) = 2 + 276 = 278 MOD 26 = 18= R21(A) +7(L) = 21(1) + 7(12) = 21 + 84 = 105 MOD 26 = 1 = AIrrationally held truths may be more harmful than reasonederrors.

    REFERENCES / RESOURCES

    [updated 10 March 1996]

    [ACA]  ACA and You, "Handbook For Members of the American       Cryptogram Association," ACA publications, 1995.[ACA1] Anonymous, "The ACA and You - Handbook For Secure       Communications", American Cryptogram Association,       1994.[ACM]  Association For Computing Machinery, "Codes, Keys and       Conflicts: Issues in U.S. Crypto Policy," Report of a       Special Panel of ACM U. S. Public Policy Committee       (USACM), June 1994.[AFM]  AFM - 100-80, Traffic Analysis, Department of the Air       Force, 1946.[ALAN] Turing, Alan,  "The Enigma", by A. Hodges. Simon and       Schuster, 1983.[ALBA] Alberti, "Treatise De Cifris," Meister Papstlichen,       Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1963.[ALKA] al-Kadi, Ibrahim A., Origins of Cryptology: The Arab       Contributions, Cryptologia, Vol XVI, No.  2, April 1992,       pp 97-127.[AND1] Andree, Josephine, "Chips from the Math Log," Mu Alpha       Theta, 1966.[AND2] Andree, Josephine, "More Chips from the Math Log," Mu       Alpha Theta, 1970.[AND3] Andree, Josephine, "Lines from the O.U. Mathematics       Letter," Vols I,II,III, Mu Alpha Theta, 1971,1971,1971.[AND4] Andree, Josephine and Richard V., "RAJA Books: a Puzzle       Potpourri," RAJA, 1976.[ANDR] Andrew, Christopher, 'Secret Service', Heinemann,       London 1985.[ANNA] Anonymous., "The History of the International Code.",       Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, 1934.[ANN1] Anonymous., " Speech and Facsimile Scrambling and       Decoding," Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1981.[ANTH] Anthony - Cave Brown, "Bodyguard of Lies", Harper and       Row, New York, 1975.[ASIR] Anonymous, Enigma and Other Machines, Air Scientific       Institute Report, 1976.[AUG1] D. A. August, "Cryptography and Exploitation of Chinese       Manual Cryptosystems - Part I:The Encoding Problem",       Cryptologia, Vol XIII, No. 4, October 1989.[AUG2] D. A. August, "Cryptography and Exploitation of Chinese       Manual Cryptosystems - Part II:The Encrypting Problem",       Cryptologia, Vol XIV, No. 1, August 1990.[BADE] Badeau, J. S. et. al.,  The Genius of Arab Civilization:       Source of Renaissance.  Second Edition.  Cambridge: MIT       Press. 1983.[BAMF] Bamford, James, "The Puzzle Palace: A Report on       America's Most Secret Agency," Boston, Houghton Mifflin,       1982.[BARB] Barber, F. J. W., "Archaeological Decipherment: A       Handbook," Princeton University Press, 1974.[B201] Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of The Simple       Substitution Cipher with Word Divisions," Course #201,       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1982.[BALL] Ball, W. W. R., Mathematical Recreations and Essays,       London, 1928.[BAR1] Barker, Wayne G., "Course No 201, Cryptanalysis of The       Simple Substitution Cipher with Word Divisions," Aegean       Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1975.[BAR2] Barker, W., ed., History of Codes and Ciphers in the       U.S.  During the Period between World Wars, Part II,       1930 - 1939., Aegean Park Press, 1990.[BAR3] Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of the Hagelin       Cryptograph, Aegean Park Press, 1977.[BAR4] Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of the Enciphered Code       Problem - Where Additive  method of Encipherment Has       Been Used," Aegean Park Press, 1979.[BARK] Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of The Simple       Substitution Cipher with Word Divisions," Aegean Park       Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1973.[BARR] Barron, John, '"KGB: The Secret Work Of Soviet Agents,"       Bantom Books, New York, 1981.[BAUD] Baudouin, Captain Roger, "Elements de Cryptographie,"       Paris, 1939.[BAZE] Bazeries, M. le Capitaine, " Cryptograph a 20 rondelles-       alphabets,"  Compte rendu de la 20e session de l'       Association Francaise pour l'Advancement des Scienses,       Paris: Au secretariat de l' Association, 1892.[BEES] Beesley, P., "Very Special Intelligence", Doubleday, New       York, 1977.[BLK]  Blackstock, Paul W.  and Frank L Schaf, Jr.,       "Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage and Covert       Operations,"  Gale Research Co., Detroit, MI., 1978.[BLOC] Bloch, Gilbert and Ralph Erskine, "Exploit the Double       Encipherment Flaw in Enigma", Cryptologia, vol 10, #3,       July 1986, p134 ff.  (29)[BLUE] Bearden, Bill, "The Bluejacket's Manual, 20th ed.,       Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 1978.[BODY] Brown, Anthony - Cave, "Bodyguard of Lies", Harper and       Row, New York, 1975.[BOLI] Bolinger, D. and Sears, D., "Aspects of Language,"       3rd ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,Inc., New York,       1981.[BOSW] Bosworth, Bruce, "Codes, Ciphers and Computers: An       Introduction to Information Security," Hayden Books,       Rochelle Park, NJ, 1990.[BOWE] Bowers, William Maxwell, "The Bifid Cipher, Practical       Cryptanalysis, II, ACA, 1960.[BOWN] Bowen, Russell J., "Scholar's Guide to Intelligence       Literature: Bibliography of the Russell J. Bowen       Collection," National Intelligence Study Center,       Frederick, MD, 1983.[BP82] Beker, H., and Piper, F., " Cipher Systems, The       Protection of Communications", John Wiley and Sons,       NY, 1982.[BRAS] Brasspounder, "Language Data - German," MA89, THe       Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1989.[BREN] Brennecke, J., "Die Wennde im U-Boote-Krieg:Ursachen und       Folgren 1939 - 1943," Herford, Koehler, 1984.[BROO] Brook, Maxey, "150 Puzzles in Cryptarithmetic,"       Dover, 1963.[BRIT] Anonymous, "British Army Manual of Cryptography",       HMF, 1914.[BROG] Broglie, Duc de, Le Secret du roi: Correspondance       secrete de Louis XV avec ses agents diplomatiques       1752-1774, 3rd ed.  Paris, Calmann Levy, 1879.[BRYA] Bryan, William G., "Practical Cryptanalysis - Periodic       Ciphers -Miscellaneous", Vol 5, American Cryptogram       Association, 1967.[BURL] Burling, R., "Man's Many Voices: Language in Its       Cultural Context," Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York,       1970.[CAND] Candela, Rosario, "Isomorphism and its Application in       Cryptanalytics, Cardanus Press, NYC 1946.[CAR1] Carlisle, Sheila. Pattern Words: Three to Eight Letters       in Length, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA 92654,       1986.[CAR2] Carlisle, Sheila. Pattern Words: Nine Letters in Length,       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA 92654, 1986.[CASE] Casey, William, 'The Secret War Against Hitler',       Simon & Schuster, London 1989.[CAVE] Cave Brown, Anthony, 'Bodyguard of Lies', Harper &       Row, New York 1975.[CCF]  Foster, C. C., "Cryptanalysis for Microcomputers",       Hayden Books, Rochelle Park, NJ, 1990.[CHOI] Interview with Grand Master Sin Il Choi.,9th DAN, June       25, 1995.[CHOM] Chomsky, Norm, "Syntactic Structures," The Hague:       Mouton, 1957.[CHUN] Chungkuo Ti-erh Lishih Tangankuan, ed "K'ang-Jih       chengmien chanch'ang," Chiangsu Kuchi Ch'upansheh,       1987., pp993-1026.[CI]   FM 34-60, Counterintelligence, Department of the Army,       February 1990.[COUR] Courville, Joseph B., "Manual For Cryptanalysis Of The       Columnar Double Transposition Cipher, by Courville       Assoc., South Gate, CA, 1986.[CLAR] Clark, Ronald W., 'The Man who broke Purple',       Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1977.[COLF] Collins Gem Dictionary, "French," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1979.[COLG] Collins Gem Dictionary, "German," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1984.[COLI] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Italian," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1954.[COLL] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Latin," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1980.[COLP] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Portuguese," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1981.[COLR] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Russian," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1958.[COLS] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Spanish," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1980.[COPP] Coppersmith, Don.,"IBM Journal of Research and       Development 38, 1994.[COVT] Anonymous, "Covert Intelligence Techniques Of the Soviet       Union, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, Ca.  1980.[CREM] Cremer, Peter E.," U-Boat Commander: A Periscope View of       The Battle of The Atlantic," New York, Berkley, 1986.[CULL] Cullen, Charles G., "Matrices and Linear       Transformations," 2nd Ed., Dover Advanced Mathematics       Books, NY, 1972.[DAGA] D'agapeyeff, Alexander, "Codes and Ciphers," Oxford       University Press, London, 1974.[DALT] Dalton, Leroy, "Topics for Math Clubs," National Council       of Teachers and Mu Alpha Theta, 1973.[DAN]  Daniel, Robert E., "Elementary Cryptanalysis:       Cryptography For Fun," Cryptiquotes, Seattle, WA., 1979.[DAVI] Da Vinci, "Solving Russian Cryptograms", The Cryptogram,       September-October, Vol XLII, No 5. 1976.[DEAC] Deacon, R., "The Chinese Secret Service," Taplinger, New       York, 1974.[DEAU] Bacon, Sir Francis, "De Augmentis Scientiarum," tr. by       Gilbert Watts, (1640) or tr. by Ellis, Spedding, and       Heath (1857,1870).[DELA] Delastelle, F., Cryptographie nouvelle, Maire of Saint-       Malo, P. Dubreuil, Paris, 1893.[DENN] Denning, Dorothy E. R.," Cryptography and Data       Security," Reading: Addison Wesley, 1983.[DEVO] Deavours, Cipher A. and Louis Kruh, Machine Cryptography       and Modern Cryptanalysis, Artech, New York, 1985.[DEV1] Deavours, C. A., "Breakthrough '32: The Polish Solution       of the ENIGMA,"  Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA,       1988.[DEV2] Deavours, C. A. and Reeds, J.,"The ENIGMA," CRYPTOLOGIA,       Vol I No 4, Oct. 1977.[DEV3] Deavours, C. A.,"Analysis of the Herbern cryptograph       using Isomorphs," CRYPTOLOGIA, Vol I No 2, April, 1977.[DIFF] Diffie, Whitfield," The First Ten Years of Public Key       Cryptography," Proceedings of the IEEE 76 (1988): 560-       76.[DIFE] Diffie, Whitfield and M.E. Hellman,"New Directions in       Cryptography, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory       IT-22, 1976.[DONI] Donitz, Karl, Memoirs: Ten Years and Twenety Days,       London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1959.[DOW]  Dow, Don. L., "Crypto-Mania, Version 3.0", Box 1111,       Nashua, NH. 03061-1111, (603) 880-6472, Cost $15 for       registered version and available as shareware under       CRYPTM.zip on CIS or zipnet.[EIIC] Ei'ichi Hirose, ",Finland ni okeru tsushin joho," in       Showa gunji hiwa: Dodai kurabu koenshu, Vol 1,  Dodai       kurabu koenshu henshu iinkai, ed., (Toyko: Dodai keizai       konwakai, 1987), pp 59-60.[ELCY] Gaines, Helen Fouche, Cryptanalysis, Dover, New York,       1956.[ENIG] Tyner, Clarence E. Jr., and Randall K. Nichols,       "ENIGMA95 - A Simulation of Enhanced Enigma Cipher       Machine on A Standard Personal Computer," for       publication, November, 1995.[EPST] Epstein, Sam and Beryl, "The First Book of Codes and       Ciphers," Ambassador Books, Toronto, Canada, 1956.[ERSK] Erskine, Ralph, "Naval Enigma: The Breaking of Heimisch       and Triton," Intelligence and National Security 3, Jan.       1988.[EVES] Eves, Howard, "An Introduction to the History of       Mathematics, " New York, Holt Rinehart winston, 1964.[EYRA] Eyraud, Charles, "Precis de Cryptographie Moderne'"       Paris, 1953.[FL]   Anonymous, The Friedman Legacy: A Tribute to William and       Elizabeth Friedman, National Security Agency, Central       Security Service, Center for Cryptological History,1995.[FLIC] Flicke, W. F., "War Secrets in the Ether," Aegean Park       Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1994.[FOWL] Fowler, Mark and Radhi Parekh, " Codes and Ciphers,       - Advanced Level," EDC Publishing, Tulsa OK, 1994.       (clever and work)[FREB] Friedman, William F., "Cryptology," The Encyclopedia       Britannica, all editions since 1929.  A classic article       by the greatest cryptanalyst.[FR1]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,       Military Cryptanalytics Part I - Volume 1, Aegean Park       Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.[FR2]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,       Military Cryptanalytics Part I - Volume 2, Aegean Park       Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.[FR3]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,       Military Cryptanalytics Part III, Aegean Park Press,       Laguna Hills, CA, 1995.[FR4]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,       Military Cryptanalytics Part IV,  Aegean Park Press,       Laguna Hills, CA, 1995.[FR5]  Friedman, William F. Military Cryptanalysis - Part I,       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1980.[FR6]  Friedman, William F. Military Cryptanalysis - Part II,       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1980.[FRE]  Friedman, William F. , "Elements of Cryptanalysis,"       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.[FREA] Friedman, William F. , "Advanced Military Cryptography,"       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.[FRAA] Friedman, William F. , "American Army Field Codes in The       American Expeditionary Forces During the First World       War, USA 1939.[FRAB] Friedman, W. F., Field Codes used by the German Army       During World War. 1919.[FR22] Friedman, William F., The Index of Coincidence and Its       Applications In Cryptography, Publication 22, The       Riverbank Publications,  Aegean Park Press, Laguna       Hills, CA, 1979.[FR6]  Friedman, W. F., "Six Lectures On Cryptology," National       Archives, SRH-004.[FROM] Fromkin, V and Rodman, R., "Introduction to Language,"       4th ed.,Holt Reinhart & Winston, New York, 1988.[FRS]  Friedman, William F. and Elizabeth S., "The       Shakespearean Ciphers Examined,"  Cambridge University       Press, London, 1957.[FUMI] Fumio Nakamura, Rikugun ni okeru COMINT no hoga to       hatten," The Journal of National Defense, 16-1 (June       1988) pp85 - 87.[GAJ]  Gaj, Krzysztof, "Szyfr Enigmy: Metody zlamania," Warsaw       Wydawnictwa Komunikacji i Lacznosci, 1989.[GAR1] Gardner, Martin, "536 Puzzles and Curious Problems,"       Scribners, 1967.[GAR2] Gardner, Martin, "Mathematics, Magic, and Mystery ,"       Dover, 1956.[GAR3] Gardner, Martin, "New Mathematical Diversions from       Scientific American," Simon and Schuster, 1966.[GAR4] Gardner, Martin, "Sixth Book of Mathematical Games       from Scientific American," Simon and Schuster, 1971.[GARL] Garlinski, Jozef, 'The Swiss Corridor', Dent, London       1981.[GAR1] Garlinski, Jozef, 'Hitler's Last Weapons', Methuen,       London 1978.[GAR2] Garlinski, Jozef, 'The Enigma War', New York, Scribner,       1979.[GERM] "German Dictionary," Hippocrene Books, Inc., New York,       1983.[GIVI] Givierge, General Marcel, " Course In Cryptography,"       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1978.  Also, M.       Givierge, "Cours de Cryptographie," Berger-Levrault,       Paris, 1925.[GLEA] Gleason, A. M., "Elementary Course in Probability for       the Cryptanalyst," Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA,       1985.[GODD] Goddard, Eldridge and Thelma, "Cryptodyct," Marion,       Iowa, 1976[GORD] Gordon, Cyrus H., " Forgotten Scripts:  Their Ongoing       Discovery and Decipherment,"  Basic Books, New York,       1982.[GRA1] Grandpre: "Grandpre, A. de--Cryptologist. Part 1       'Cryptographie Pratique - The Origin of the Grandpre',       ISHCABIBEL, The Cryptogram, SO60, American Cryptogram       Association, 1960.[GRA2] Grandpre: "Grandpre Ciphers", ROGUE, The Cryptogram,       SO63, American Cryptogram Association, 1963.[GRA3] Grandpre: "Grandpre", Novice Notes, LEDGE, The       Cryptogram, MJ75, American Cryptogram Association,1975[GRAH] Graham, L. A., "Ingenious Mathematical Problems and       Methods,"  Dover, 1959.[GREU] Greulich, Helmut, "Spion in der Streichholzschachtel:       Raffinierte Methoden der Abhortechnik, Gutersloh:       Bertelsmann, 1969.[GUST] Gustave, B., "Enigma:ou, la plus grande 'enigme de la       guerre 1939-1945." Paris:Plon, 1973.[HA]   Hahn, Karl, " Frequency of Letters", English Letter       Usage Statistics using as a sample, "A Tale of Two       Cities" by Charles Dickens, Usenet SCI.Crypt, 4 Aug       1994.[HAWA] Hitchcock, H. R., "Hawaiian," Charles E. Tuttle, Co.,       Toyko, 1968.[HAWC] Hawcock, David and MacAllister, Patrick, "Puzzle Power!       Multidimensional Codes, Illusions, Numbers, and       Brainteasers," Little, Brown and Co., New York, 1994.[HELD] Held, Gilbert, "Top Secret Data Encryption Techniques,"       Prentice Hall, 1993.  (great title..limited use)[HEMP] Hempfner, Philip and Tania, "Pattern Word List For       Divided and Undivided Cryptograms," unpublished       manuscript, 1984.[HEPP] Hepp, Leo, "Die Chiffriermaschine 'ENIGMA'", F-Flagge,       1978.[HIDE] Hideo Kubota, " Zai-shi dai-go kokugun tokushu joho       senshi."  unpublished manuscript, NIDS.[HILL] Hill, Lester, S., "Cryptography in an Algebraic       Alphabet", The American Mathematical Monthly, June-July       1929.[HIL1] Hill, L. S. 1929. Cryptography in an Algebraic       Alphabet.  American Mathematical Monthly. 36:306-312.[HIL2] Hill, L. S.  1931.  Concerning the Linear       Transformation Apparatus in Cryptography.  American       Mathematical Monthly. 38:135-154.[HINS] Hinsley, F. H.,  "History of British Intelligence in the       Second World War", Cambridge University Press,       Cambridge, 1979-1988.[HIN2] Hinsley, F. H.  and Alan Strip in "Codebreakers -Story       of Bletchley Park", Oxford University Press, 1994.[HIN3] Hinsley, F. H., et. al., "British Intilligence in The       Second World War: Its Influence on Strategy and       Operations," London, HMSO vol I, 1979, vol II 1981, vol       III, 1984 and 1988.[HISA] Hisashi Takahashi, "Military Friction, Diplomatic       Suasion in China, 1937 - 1938," The Journal of       International Studies, Sophia Univ, Vol 19, July, 1987.[HIS1] Barker, Wayne G., "History of Codes and Ciphers in the       U.S. Prior to World War I," Aegean Park Press, Laguna       Hills, CA, 1978.[HITT] Hitt, Parker, Col. " Manual for the Solution of Military       Ciphers,"  Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.[HODG] Hodges, Andrew, "Alan Turing: The Enigma," New York,       Simon and Schuster, 1983.[HOFF] Hoffman, Lance J., editor,  "Building In Big Brother:       The Cryptographic Policy Debate," Springer-Verlag,       N.Y.C., 1995. ( A useful and well balanced book of       cryptographic resource materials. )[HOF1] Hoffman, Lance. J., et. al.," Cryptography Policy,"       Communications of the ACM 37, 1994, pp. 109-17.[HOLM  Holmes, W. J., "Double-Edged Secrets: U.S. Naval       Intelligence Operations in the Pacific During WWII",       Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1979.[HOM1] Homophonic: A Multiple Substitution Number Cipher", S-       TUCK, The Cryptogram, DJ45, American Cryptogram       Association, 1945.[HOM2] Homophonic: Bilinear Substitution Cipher, Straddling,"       ISHCABIBEL, The Cryptogram, AS48, American Cryptogram       Association, 1948.[HOM3] Homophonic: Computer Column:"Homophonic Solving,"       PHOENIX, The Cryptogram, MA84, American Cryptogram       Association, 1984.[HOM4] Homophonic: Hocheck Cipher,", SI SI, The Cryptogram,       JA90, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.[HOM5] Homophonic: "Homophonic Checkerboard," GEMINATOR, The       Cryptogram, MA90, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.[HOM6] Homophonic: "Homophonic Number Cipher," (Novice Notes)       LEDGE, The Cryptogram, SO71, American Cryptogram       Association, 1971.[HUNG] Rip Van Winkel, "Hungarian," The Cryptogram, March -       April,  American Cryptogram Association, 1956.[HYDE] H. Montgomery Hyde, "Room 3603, The Story of British       Intelligence Center in New York During World War II",       New York, Farrar, Straus, 1963.[IBM1] IBM Research Reports, Vol 7., No 4, IBM Research,       Yorktown Heights, N.Y., 1971.[INDE] PHOENIX, Index to the Cryptogram: 1932-1993, ACA, 1994.[ITAL] Italian - English Dictionary, compiled by Vittore E.       Bocchetta, Fawcett Premier, New York, 1965.[JAPA] Martin, S.E., "Basic Japanese Coversation Dictionary,"       Charles E. Tuttle Co., Toyko, 1981.[JOHN] Johnson, Brian, 'The Secret War', Arrow Books,       London 1979.[KADI] al-Kadi, Ibrahim A., Cryptography and Data Security:       Cryptographic Properties of Arabic, Proceedings of the       Third Saudi Engineering Conference. Riyadh, Saudi       Arabia: Nov 24-27, Vol 2:910-921., 1991.[KAHN] Kahn, David, "The Codebreakers", Macmillian Publishing       Co. , 1967.[KAH1] Kahn, David, "Kahn On Codes - Secrets of the New       Cryptology," MacMillan Co., New York, 1983.[KAH2] Kahn, David, "An Enigma Chronology", Cryptologia Vol       XVII,Number 3, July 1993.[KAH3] Kahn, David, "Seizing The Enigma: The Race to Break the       German U-Boat Codes 1939-1943 ", Houghton Mifflin, New       York, 1991.[KERC] Kerckhoffs, "la Cryptographie Militaire, " Journel des       Sciences militaires, 9th series, IX, (January and       February, 1883, Libraire Militaire de L. Baudoin &Co.,       Paris.  English trans. by Warren T, McCready of the       University of Toronto, 1964[KOBL] Koblitz, Neal, " A Course in Number Theory and       Cryptography, 2nd Ed, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994.[KONH] Konheim, Alan G., "Cryptography -A Primer" , John Wiley,       1981, pp 212 ff.[KORD] Kordemsky, B., "The Moscow Puzzles," Schribners, 1972.[KOTT] Kottack, Phillip Conrad, "Anthropology: The Exploration       Of Human Diversity," 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc., New       York, N.Y.  1994.[KOZA] Kozaczuk, Dr. Wladyslaw,  "Enigma: How the German       Machine Cipher was Broken and How it Was Read by the       Allies in WWI", University Pub, 1984.[KRAI] Kraitchek, "Mathematical Recreations," Norton, 1942, and       Dover, 1963.[KULL] Kullback, Solomon, Statistical Methods in Cryptanalysis,       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, Ca. 1976[LAFF] Laffin, John, "Codes and Ciphers: Secret Writing Through       The Ages," Abelard-Schuman, London, 1973.[LAI]  Lai, Xuejia, "On the Design and Security of Block       Ciphers," ETH Series in Information Processing 1, 1992.       (Article defines the IDEA Cipher)[LAIM] Lai, Xuejia, and James L. Massey, "A Proposal for a New       Block Encryption Standard," Advances in Cryptology -       Eurocrypt 90 Proceedings, 1992, pp. 55-70.[LAKE] Lakoff, R., "Language and the Women's Place," Harper &       Row, New York, 1975.[LANG] Langie, Andre, "Cryptography," translated from French       by J.C.H. Macbeth, Constable and Co., London, 1922.[LATI] BRASSPOUNDER, "Latin Language Data, "The Cryptogram,"       July-August 1993.[LAUE] Lauer, Rudolph F.,  "Computer Simulation of Classical       Substitution Cryptographic Systems" Aegean Park Press,       1981, p72 ff.[LEAR] Leary, Penn, " The Second Cryptographic Shakespeare,"       Omaha, NE [from author]  1994.[LEA1] Leary, Penn, " Supplement to The Second Cryptographic       Shakespeare," Omaha, NE [from author]  1994.[LEAU] Leaute, H., "Sur les Mecanismes Cryptographiques de M.       de Viaris,"  Le Genie Civil, XIII, Sept 1, 1888.[LEDG] LEDGE, "NOVICE NOTES," American Cryptogram Association,       1994.  [ One of the best introductory texts on ciphers       written by an expert in the field.  Not only well       written, clear to understand but as authoritative as       they come! ][LENS] Lenstra, A.K. et. al. "The Number Field Sieve,"       Proceedings of the 22 ACM Symposium on the Theory of       Computing," Baltimore, ACM Press, 1990, pp 564-72.[LEN1] Lenstra, A.K. et. al. "The Factorization of the Ninth       Fermat Number," Mathematics of Computation 61 1993,       pp. 319-50.[LEWI] Lewin, Ronald, 'Ultra goes to War', Hutchinson,       London 1978.[LEWY] Lewy, Guenter, "America In Vietnam", Oxford University       Press, New York, 1978.[LEVI] Levine, J.,  U.S. Cryptographic Patents 1861-1981,       Cryptologia, Terre Haute, In 1983.[LEV1] Levine, J.  1961.  Some Elementary Cryptanalysis       of Algebraic Cryptography.  American Mathematical       Monthly.  68:411-418[LEV2] Levine, J.  1961.  Some Applications of High-       Speed Computers to the Case n =2 of Algebraic       Cryptography.  Mathematics of Computation.  15:254-260[LEV3] Levine, J. 1963.  Analysis of the Case n =3 in Algebraic       Cryptography With Involuntary Key Matrix With Known       Alphabet.  Journal fuer die Reine und Angewante       Mathematik.  213:1-30.[LISI] Lisicki, Tadeusz, 'Dzialania Enigmy', Orzet Biaty,       London July-August, 1975; 'Enigma i Lacida',       Przeglad lacznosci, London 1974- 4; 'Pogromcy       Enigmy we Francji', Orzet Biaty, London, Sept.       1975.'[LYNC] Lynch, Frederick D., "Pattern Word List, Vol 1.,"       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.[LYSI] Lysing, Henry, aka John Leonard Nanovic, "Secret       Writing," David Kemp Co., NY 1936.[MACI] Macintyre, D., "The Battle of the Atlantic," New York,       Macmillan, 1961.[MADA] Madachy, J. S., "Mathematics on Vacation," Scribners,       1972.[MAGN] Magne, Emile, Le plaisant Abbe de Boisrobert, Paris,       Mecure de France, 1909.[MANN] Mann, B.,"Cryptography with Matrices," The Pentagon, Vol       21, Fall 1961.[MANS] Mansfield, Louis C. S., "The Solution of Codes and       Ciphers", Alexander Maclehose & Co., London, 1936.[MARO] Marotta, Michael, E.  "The Code Book - All About       Unbreakable Codes and How To Use Them," Loompanics       Unlimited, 1979.  [This is a terrible book.  Badly       written, without proper authority, unprofessional, and       prejudicial to boot.  And, it has one of the better       illustrations of the Soviet one-time pad with example,       with three errors in cipher text, that I have corrected       for the author.][MARS] Marshall, Alan, "Intelligence and Espionage in the Reign       of Charles II," 1660-1665, Cambridge University, New       York, N.Y., 1994.[MART] Martin, James,  "Security, Accuracy and Privacy in       Computer Systems," Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs,       N.J., 1973.[MAVE] Mavenel, Denis L.,  Lettres, Instructions Diplomatiques       et Papiers d' Etat du Cardinal Richelieu, Historie       Politique, Paris 1853-1877 Collection.[MAYA] Coe, M. D., "Breaking The Maya Code," Thames and Hudson,       New York, 1992.[MAZU] Mazur, Barry, "Questions On Decidability and       Undecidability in Number Theory," Journal of Symbolic       Logic, Volume 54, Number 9, June, 1994.[MELL] Mellen G.  1981. Graphic Solution of a Linear       Transformation Cipher. Cryptologia. 5:1-19.[MEND] Mendelsohn, Capt. C. J.,  Studies in German Diplomatic       Codes Employed During World War, GPO, 1937.[MERK] Merkle, Ralph, "Secrecy, Authentication and Public Key       Systems," Ann Arbor, UMI Research Press, 1982.[MER1] Merkle, Ralph, "Secure Communications Over Insecure       Channels," Communications of the ACM 21, 1978, pp. 294-       99.[MER2] Merkle, Ralph and Martin E. Hellman, "On the Security of       Multiple Encryption ," Communications of the ACM 24,       1981, pp. 465-67.[MER3] Merkle, Ralph and Martin E. Hellman, "Hiding       Information and Signatures in Trap Door Knapsacks,"       IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 24, 1978, pp.       525-30.[MILL] Millikin, Donald, " Elementary Cryptography ", NYU       Bookstore, NY, 1943.[MM]   Meyer, C. H., and Matyas, S. M., " CRYPTOGRAPHY - A New       Dimension in Computer Data Security, " Wiley       Interscience, New York, 1982.[MODE] Modelski, Tadeusz, 'The Polish Contribution to the       Ultimate Allied Victory in the Second World War',       Worthing (Sussex) 1986.[MRAY] Mrayati, Mohammad, Yahya Meer Alam and Hassan al-       Tayyan., Ilm at-Ta'miyah wa Istikhraj al-Mu,amma Ind       al-Arab. Vol 1. Damascus: The Arab Academy of Damascus.,       1987.[MULL] Mulligan, Timothy," The German Navy Examines its       Cryptographic Security, Oct. 1941, Military affairs, vol       49, no 2, April 1985.[MYER] Myer, Albert, "Manual of Signals," Washington, D.C.,       USGPO, 1879.[NBS]  National Bureau of Standards, "Data Encryption       Standard," FIPS PUB 46-1, 1987.[NIBL] Niblack, A. P., "Proposed Day, Night and Fog Signals for       the Navy with Brief Description of the Ardois Hight       System," In Proceedings of the United States Naval       Institute, Annapolis: U. S. Naval Institute, 1891.[NIC1] Nichols, Randall K., "Xeno Data on 10 Different       Languages," ACA-L, August 18, 1995.[NIC2] Nichols, Randall K., "Chinese Cryptography Parts 1-3,"       ACA-L, August 24, 1995.[NIC3] Nichols, Randall K., "German Reduction Ciphers Parts       1-4," ACA-L, September 15, 1995.[NIC4] Nichols, Randall K., "Russian Cryptography Parts 1-3,"       ACA-L, September 05, 1995.[NIC5] Nichols, Randall K., "A Tribute to William F. Friedman",       NCSA FORUM, August 20, 1995.[NIC6] Nichols, Randall K., "Wallis and Rossignol,"  NCSA       FORUM, September 25, 1995.[NIC7] Nichols, Randall K., "Arabic Contributions to       Cryptography,", in The Cryptogram, ND95, ACA, 1995.[NIC8] Nichols, Randall K., "U.S. Coast Guard Shuts Down Morse       Code System," The Cryptogram, SO95, ACA publications,       1995.[NIC9] Nichols, Randall K., "PCP Cipher," NCSA FORUM, March 10,       1995.[NICX] Nichols, R. K., Keynote Speech to A.C.A. Convention,       "Breaking Ciphers in Other Languages.," New Orleans,       La., 1993.[NICK] Nickels, Hamilton, "Codemaster: Secrets of Making and       Breaking Codes," Paladin Press, Boulder, CO., 1990.[NORM] Norman, Bruce, 'Secret Warfare', David & Charles,       Newton Abbot (Devon) 1973.[NORW] Marm, Ingvald and Sommerfelt, Alf, "Norwegian," Teach       Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1967.[NSA]  NSA's Friedman Legacy - A Tribute to William and       Elizabeth Friedman, NSA Center for Cryptological       History, 1992, pp 201 ff.[OKLA] Andre, Josephine and Richard V. Andree, "Cryptarithms,"       Unit One, Problem Solving and Logical Thinking,       University of Oklahoma, Norman, Ok.  Copy No: 486, 1976.[OKLI] Andre, Josephine and Richard V. Andree, " Instructors       Manual For Cryptarithms," Unit One, Problem Solving and       Logical Thinking, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Ok.       Copy No: 486, 1976.[OP20] "Course in Cryptanalysis," OP-20-G', Navy Department,       Office of Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, 1941.[PERR] Perrault, Charles, Tallement des Reaux, Les       Historiettes, Bibliotheque del La Pleiade, Paris 1960,       pp 256-258.[PGP]  Garfinkel, Simson, "PGP: Pretty Good Privacy," O'reilly       and Associates, Inc. Sebastopol, CA. 1995.[PHIL] Phillips, H., "My Best Puzzles in Logic and Reasoning,"       Dover, 1961.[PIER] Pierce, Clayton C., "Cryptoprivacy", 325 Carol Drive,       Ventura, Ca. 93003.[POLY] Polya, G., "Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning,"       Princeton Press, 1954.[POL1] Polya, G., "How To Solve It.," Princeton Press, 1948.[POPE] Pope, Maurice, "The Story of Decipherment: From Egyptian       Hieroglyphic to Linear B., Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1975.[PORT] Barker, Wayne G. "Cryptograms in Portuguese," Aegean       Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA., 1986.[POR1] Aliandro, Hygino, "The Portuguese-English Dictionary,"       Pocket Books, New York, N.Y., 1960.[PRIC] Price, A.,"Instruments of Darkness: the History of       Electronic Warfare, London, Macdonalds and Janes, 1977.[RAJ1] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 2 to 6 Letters," G &       C.  Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1977.[RAJ2] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 7 to 8 Letters," G &       C.  Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1980.[RAJ3] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 9 to 10 Letters," G &       C.  Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1981.[RAJ4] "Non Pattern Words of 3 to 14 Letters," RAJA Books,       Norman, OK. 1982.[RAJ5] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 10 Letters," G & C.       Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1982.[REJE] Rejewski, Marian, "Mathematical Solution of the Enigma       Cipher" published in vol 6, #1, Jan 1982 Cryptologia pp       1-37.[RENA] Renauld, P. "La Machine a' chiffrer 'Enigma'", Bulletin       Trimestriel de l'association des Amis de L'Ecole       superieure de guerre no 78, 1978.[RHEE] Rhee, Man Young, "Cryptography and Secure Commun-       ications,"  McGraw Hill Co, 1994[RIVE] Rivest, Ron, "Ciphertext: The RSA Newsletter 1, 1993.[RIV1] Rivest, Ron, Shamir, A and L. Adleman, "A Method for       Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public Key       Cryptosystems," Communications of the ACM 21, 1978.[ROAC] Roach, T., "Hobbyist's Guide To COMINT Collection and       Analysis," 1330 Copper Peak Lane, San Jose, Ca. 95120-       4271, 1994.[ROBO] NYPHO, The Cryptogram, Dec 1940, Feb, 1941.[ROHE] Jurgen Rohwer's Comparative Analysis of Allied and Axis       Radio-Intelligence in the Battle of the Atlantic,       Proceedings of the 13th Military History Symposium, USAF       Academy, 1988, pp 77-109.[ROHW] Rohwer Jurgen,  "Critical Convoy Battles of March 1943,"       London, Ian Allan, 1977.[ROH1] Rohwer Jurgen, "Nachwort: Die Schlacht im Atlantik in       der Historischen Forschung, Munchen: Bernard and Graefe,       1980.[ROH2] Rohwer Jurgen, et. al. , "Chronology of the War at Sea,       Vol I, 1939-1942, London, Ian Allan, 1972.[ROH3] Rohwer Jurgen, "U-Boote, Eine Chronik in Bildern,       Oldenburs, Stalling, 1962. Skizzen der 8 Phasen.[ROOM] Hyde, H. Montgomery, "Room 3603, The Story of British       Intelligence Center in New York During World War II",       New York, Farrar, Straus, 1963.[ROSE] Budge, E. A. Wallis, "The Rosetta Stone," British Museum       Press, London, 1927.[RSA]  RSA Data Security, Inc., "Mailsafe: Public Key       Encryption Software Users Manual, Version 5.0, Redwood       City, CA, 1994[RUNY] Runyan, T. J. and Jan M. Copes "To Die Gallently",       Westview Press 1994, p85-86 ff.[RYSK] Norbert Ryska and Siegfried Herda, "Kryptographische       Verfahren in der Datenverarbeitung," Gesellschaft fur       Informatik, Berlin, Springer-Verlag1980.[SADL] Sadler, A. L., "The Code of the Samurai," Rutland and       Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1969.[SACC] Sacco, Generale Luigi, " Manuale di Crittografia",       3rd ed., Rome, 1947.[SALE] Salewski, Michael, "Die Deutscher Seekriegsleitung,       1938- 1945, Frankfurt/Main: Bernard and Graefe, 1970-       1974.  3 volumes.[SANB] Sanbohonbu, ed., "Sanbohonbu kotokan shokuinhyo." NIDS       Archives.[SAPR] Sapir, E., "Conceptual Categories in Primitive       Language," Science: 74: 578-584., 1931.[SASS] Sassoons, George, "Radio Hackers Code Book", Duckworth,       London, 1986.[SCHN] Schneier, Bruce, "Applied Cryptography: Protocols,       Algorithms, and Source Code C," John Wiley and Sons,       1994.[SCH2] Schneier, Bruce, "Applied Cryptography: Protocols,       Algorithms, and Source Code C," 2nd ed., John Wiley and       Sons, 1995.[SCHU] Schuh, fred, "Master Book of Mathematical Recreation,"       Dover, 1968.[SCHW] Schwab, Charles, "The Equalizer," Charles Schwab, San       Francisco, 1994.[SEBE] Seberry, Jennifer and Joseph Pieprzyk, "Cryptography: An       Introduction to Computer Security," Prentice Hall, 1989.       [CAREFUL!  Lots of Errors - Basic research efforts may       be flawed - see Appendix A pg 307 for example.][SHAN] Shannon, C. E., "The Communication Theory of Secrecy       Systems," Bell System Technical Journal, Vol 28 (October       1949).[SHIN] Shinsaku Tamura, "Myohin kosaku," San'ei Shuppansha,       Toyko, 1953.[SIG1] "International Code Of Signals For Visual, Sound, and       Radio Communications,"  Defense Mapping Agency,       Hydrographic/Topographic Center, United States Ed.       Revised 1981[SIG2] "International Code Of Signals For Visual, Sound, and       Radio Communications,"  U. S. Naval Oceanographic       Office, United States Ed., Pub. 102,  1969.[SIMM] Simmons, G. J., "How To Insure that Data Acquired to       Verify Treaty Compliance are Trustworthy, " in       "Authentication without secrecy: A secure communications       problem uniquely solvable by asymmetric encryption       techniques.", IEEE EASCON 79, Washington, 1979, pp. 661-       62.[SINK] Sinkov, Abraham, "Elementary Cryptanalysis", The       Mathematical Association of America, NYU, 1966.[SISI] Pierce, C.C., "Cryptoprivacy," Author/Publisher, Ventura       Ca., 1995. (XOR Logic and SIGTOT teleprinters)[SMIH] Smith, David E., "John Wallis as Cryptographer",       Bulletin of American Mathematical Society, XXIV, 1917.[SMIT] Smith, Laurence D., "Cryptography, the Science of Secret       Writing," Dover, NY, 1943.[SOLZ] Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. , "The Gulag Archipelago I-       III, " Harper and Row, New York, N.Y., 1975.[SPAN] Barker, Wayne G. "Cryptograms in Spanish," Aegean Park       Press, Laguna Hills, CA., 1986.[STEV] Stevenson, William, 'A Man Called INTREPID',       Macmillan, London 1976.[STIN] Stinson, D. R., "Cryptography, Theory and Practice,"       CRC Press, London, 1995.[STIX] Stix, F., Zur Geschicte und Organisation  der Wiener       Geheimen Ziffernkanzlei, Mitteilungen des       Osterreichischen Instituts fir Geschichtsforschung,       LI 1937.[STUR] Sturtevant, E. H. and Bechtel, G., "A Hittite       Chrestomathy," Linguistic Society of American and       University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1935.[SUVO] Suvorov, Viktor "Inside Soviet Military Intelligence,"       Berkley Press, New York, 1985.[TERR] Terrett, D., "The Signal Corps: The Emergency (to       December 1941); G. R. Thompson, et. al, The Test(       December 1941 -  July 1943); D. Harris and G. Thompson,       The Outcome;(Mid 1943 to 1945), Department of the Army,       Office of the Chief of Military History, USGPO,       Washington,1956 -1966.[THEO] Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby, "Thunder Out Of       China," William Sloane Assoc., New York, 1946.[THOM] Thompson, Ken, "Reflections on Trusting Trust,"       Communications of the ACM 27, 1984.[TILD] Glover, D. Beaird, Secret Ciphers of The 1876       Presidential Election, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills,       Ca. 1991.[TM32] TM 32-250, Fundamentals of Traffic Analysis (Radio       Telegraph) Department of the Army, 1948.[TRAD] U. S. Army Military History Institute, "Traditions of       The Signal Corps., Washington, D.C., USGPO, 1959.[TRAI] Lange, Andre and Soudart, E. A., "Treatise On       Cryptography," Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, Ca.       1981.[TRIB] Anonymous, New York Tribune, Extra No. 44, "The Cipher       Dispatches, New York, 1879.[TRIT] Trithemius:Paul Chacornac, "Grandeur et Adversite de       Jean Tritheme ,Paris: Editions Traditionelles, 1963.[TUCK] Harris, Frances A., "Solving Simple Substitution       Ciphers," ACA, 1959.[TUKK] Tuckerman, B.,  "A Study of The Vigenere-Vernam Single       and Multiple Loop Enciphering Systems," IBM Report       RC2879, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown       Heights, N.Y.  1970.[TUCM] Tuckerman, B., "A Study of The Vigenere-Vernam Single       and Multiple Loop Enciphering Systems," IBM Report       RC2879, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown       Heights, N.Y.  1970.[UBAL] Ubaldino Mori Ubaldini, "I Sommergibili begli Oceani: La       Marina Italian nella Seconda Guerra Mondiale," vol XII,       Roma, Ufficio Storico della Marina Militare, 1963.[USAA] U. S. Army, Office of Chief Signal Officer,       "Instructions for Using the Cipher Device Type M-94,       February, 1922," USGPO, Washington, 1922.[VAIL] Vaille, Euggene, Le Cabinet Noir, Paris Presses       Universitaires de Frances, 1950.[VALE] Valerio, "De La Cryptographie," Journal des Scienses       militares, 9th series, Dec 1892 - May 1895, Paris.[VAND] Van de Rhoer, E., "Deadly Magic: A personal Account of       Communications Intilligence in WWII in the Pacific, New       York, Scriber, 1978.[VERN] Vernam, A. S.,  "Cipher Printing Telegraph Systems For       Secret Wire and Radio Telegraphic Communications," J.       of the IEEE, Vol 45, 109-115 (1926).[VIAR] de Viaris in Genie Civil: "Cryptographie", Publications       du Journal Le Genie Civil, 1888.[VIA1] de Viaris, "L'art de chiffre et dechiffre les depeches       secretes,"  Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1893.[VOGE] Vogel, Donald S., "Inside a KGB Cipher," Cryptologia,       Vol XIV, Number 1, January 1990.[WALL] Wallis, John, "A Collection of Letters and other Papers       in Cipher" , Oxford University, Bodleian Library, 1653.[WAL1] Wallace, Robert W. Pattern Words: Ten Letters and Eleven       Letters in Length, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA       92654, 1993.[WAL2] Wallace, Robert W. Pattern Words: Twelve Letters and       Greater in Length, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA       92654, 1993.[WATS] Watson, R. W. Seton-, ed, "The Abbot Trithemius," in       Tudor Studies, Longmans and Green, London, 1924.[WEBE] Weber, Ralph Edward, "United States Diplomatic Codes and       Ciphers, 1175-1938, Chicago, Precedent Publishing, 1979.[WEL]  Welsh, Dominic, "Codes and Cryptography," Oxford Science       Publications, New York, 1993.[WELC] Welchman, Gordon, 'The Hut Six Story', McGraw-Hill,       New York 1982.[WHOR] Whorf, B. L., "A Linguistic Consideration of Thinking In       Primitive Communities,"  In Language, Thought, and       Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf, ed. J.       B.  Carroll, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 65-86., 1956.[WINT] Winton, J., " Ultra at Sea: How Breaking the Nazi Code       Affected Allied Naval Strategy During WWII," New Uork,       William Morror, 1988.[WINK] Winkle, Rip Van, "Hungarian: The Cryptogram,", March -       April 1956.[WINT] Winterbotham, F.W., 'The Ultra Secret', Weidenfeld       and Nicolson, London 1974.[WOLE] Wolfe, Ramond W., "Secret Writing," McGraw Hill Books,       NY, 1970.[WOLF] Wolfe, Jack M., " A First Course in Cryptanalysis,"       Brooklin College Press, NY, 1943.[WRIX] Wrixon, Fred B. "Codes, Ciphers and Secret Languages,"       Crown Publishers, New York, 1990.[XEN1] PHOENIX, "Xenocrypt Handbook," American Cryptogram       Association, 1 Pidgeon Dr., Wilbraham, MA., 01095-2603,       for publication March, 1996.[YARD] Yardley, Herbert, O., "The American Black Chamber,"       Bobbs-Merrill, NY, 1931.[YAR1] Yardley, H. O., "The Chinese Black Chamber," Houghton       Mifflin, Boston, 1983.[YOKO] Yukio Yokoyama, "Tokushu joho kaisoka," unpublished       handwritten manuscript.[YOUS] Youshkevitch, A. P., Geschichte der Mathematik im       Mittelatter, Liepzig, Germany: Teubner, 1964.[YUKI] Yukio Nishihara, "Kantogan tai-So Sakusenshi," Vol 17.,       unpublished manuscript, National Institute for Defense       Studies Military Archives, Tokyo.,(hereafter NIDS       Archives)[ZIM]  Zim, Herbert S., "Codes and Secret Writing." William       Morrow Co., New York, 1948.[ZEND] Callimahos, L. D.,  Traffic Analysis and the Zendian       Problem, Agean Park Press, 1984.  (also available       through NSA Center for Cryptologic History)
    Text converted to HTML on June 18, 1998 by Joe Peschel.

    Any mistakes you find are quite likely mine. Please let me know about them by e-mailing:
    jpeschel@aol.com.

    Thanks.
    Joe Peschel