Classical Cryptography Course,
Volumes I and II from Aegean Park Press

By Randy Nichols (LANAKI)
President of the American Cryptogram Association from 1994-1996.
Executive Vice President from 1992-1994

Table of Contents
  • Lesson 1
  • Lesson 2
  • Lesson 3
  • Lesson 4
  • Lesson 5
  • Lesson 6
  • Lesson 7
  • Lesson 8
  • Lesson 9
  • Lesson 10
  • Lesson 11
  • Lesson 12
  • CLASSICAL CRYPTOGRAPHY COURSE


    BY LANAKI

    February 4, 1996


    Revision 0
    LECTURE 7
    XENOCRYPT MORPHOLOGY

    Part III


    SUMMARY

    In Lecture 7, we conclude our review of materials related tociphers created in languages other than English. Lecture 7will give practical language data for Xenocrypts commonlypublished in the Cryptogram - French, Italian, Spanish,Portuguese.

    Also, we have time for a short review and more homeworkproblems to solve. Lets start with French.

    FRENCH - The language of lovers

    FRENCH DATA [ Based on 55,758 letters of text in FRE2]

    Absolute Frequencies

    A   4,480    G    624   L   2,737  Q    616   V    801B     406    H    276   M   1,617  R  4,117   W      6C   1,944    I  4,230   N   4,406  S  4,564   X    317D   2,198    J    184   O   3,255  T  4,057   Y    100E   9,334    K     25   P   1,689  U  3,054   Z     84F     646                                       ======                                                55,758
    Monographic Kappa Plain, French Language = 0.0777, I.C.= 2.02

    Relative Frequencies, based on 55,758 letters of French plaintext referenced in FRE2 reduced to 1000 letters:E     167    T    73    C    35    G    11     J     3S      82    O    58    P    30    Q    11     Y     2A      80    U    55    M    29    B     7     Z     2N      79    L    49    V    14    X     6     K     1I      76    D    39    F    12    H     5     W     -R      74                                         =======                                                   1,000GroupsVowels:  A, E, I, O, U, Y   = 43.8%High-Frequency Consonants: N, R, S, T = 30.7% ; with L =34.0%Medium-Frequency Consonants: C, D, L, M, P = 18.3%Low-Frequency Consonants:B,F,G,H,J,K,Q,V,W,X,Z = 7.2 %8 most frequent letters:(E, S, A, N, I, R, T, and O) = 68.9%       (descending order)
    Note that group frequencies between German and French arestatistically similar.

    Initials ( based on 10,748 letters of French plain text, Oneletter words have been omitted.)D   1,445     L    784    I   315    U   240    H    67P     929     S    664    F   313    O   177    Z     7E     894     Q    394    T   305    G   146    K     5A     866     R    389    N   278    B   115    W     3C     816     M    337    V   263    J    98    Y     3                                                  ======                                                   9,853Digraphs [Frequency Distribution of Digraphs based on 55,758letters of French plain text reduced to 5,000 digraphs]   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   MA  2   6  20  12   4   6  11      50   1      36  12B  4               4               4          12C 15       6      47          11  20           5D 18           1 109           1  20   1           1E 30   4  49  48  30  15  14   3  13   5      56  58F 10       2   1   9   6           8           1G  6              16       1       2           3   1H  6               6               4I  9   3  12  10  41   4   4           1      27   8J  4               6KL 57       1   5  95   1       1  23          26M 22   9   1   1  52              23               13N 19   1  29  40  54   9  11   1  20    1      3    2O      5   7   3   1   1   2   1  21    1     10   21P 30       1   1  13           2   3          11Q          1R 62   2  10  13 127   2   6      24    1     16   11S 42   2  16  32  75   5   2   1  36    2     15    8T 40   1   7  22  78   4   1   2  67   11     12    4U 12   3  10   5  39  14   3   1  24   3      13    6V  9              24              16WX  4       3   3   3           1   1                1Y  2               2Z                  3               1Digraphs [Frequency Distribution of Digraphs based on 55,758letters of French plain text reduced to 5,000 digraphs]    N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   ZA  68   1  21   3  41  17  46  29  13           2   1B       4           5   2   1   2C      48           4   1   8   8D      10   1       6   2      26E 105   4  38  12  89 154  58  27  17       8       3F       8   1      10   1       1G   7   6           8       4   2H       3           1           4I  49  51   5  12  27  52  47       9       7       1J       5                           2K       1L   3  10   1           5   4  12               1M       8   9           1       4N  10  19   6   4   3  53  99   4   7               1O 109       7      23  13   8  52   2           2P      35   9      34   1   6   4Q                              54R   8  27   5   3   7  14  19   6   7               1S   6  22  24  11   8  41  33  24   4           1T   4  14  11   7  44  23  10  11   2U  26   1   8   1  48  26  19   1   8       13      1V      16           5           2WX   1       4   1   1   2   3       1Y       1               2Z       1Digraphic Kappa plain, French = 0.0093, I.C. = 6.2987 Digraphs comprising 75% of French plain text based on 5,000digraphs arranged according to relative frequencies.ES-  154   RA- 62  AI- 50  SS- 41  EA- 30  UI- 24  OM- 21RE-  127   a)====  EC- 49  ND- 40  EE- 30  SP- 24  NI- 20ON-  109   ET- 58  IN- 49  b)====  NC- 29  SU- 24  DI- 20DE-  109   EM- 58  ED- 48  TA- 40  AU- 29  RI- 24  CI- 20EN-  105   LA- 57  CO- 48  UE- 39  IR- 27  VE- 24  AC- 20NT-   99   EL- 56  UR- 48  EP- 38  EU- 27  TS- 23  UT- 19LE-   95   QU- 54  CE- 47  AL- 36  IL- 27  MI- 23  NO- 19ER-   89   NE- 54  IT- 47  SI- 36  RO- 27  LI- 23  RT- 19TE-   78   NS- 53  AT- 46  PO- 35  OR- 27  SO- 22  NA- 19SE-   75   ME- 52  TR- 44  PR- 34  DU- 26  MA- 22  DA- 18AN-   68   IS- 52  SA- 42  ST- 33  LL- 26  TD- 22  AS- 17TI-   67   OU- 52  IE- 41  SD- 32  US- 26  AP- 21  EV- 17           IO- 51  AR- 41  PA- 30  UN- 26  OI- 21    =====                                                     3,751
    Frequent Digraph Reversals (based on table of 5,000 digraphs)ES-  154   SE- 75  LE- 95  EL- 56  RA- 62  AR- 41  IS- 52RE-  127   ER- 89  TE- 78  ET- 58  EM- 58  ME- 52  EC- 49DE-  109   ED- 48  TI- 67  IT- 47  LA- 57  AL- 36  AT- 46EN-  105   NE- 54  SI- 36  CE- 47  TA- 40Rare Digraph Reversals (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)NT-   99   TN-  4  QU- 54  UQ- 1  NS- 57  SN-6  OU- 52 UO-1Doublets (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)SS-  41  LL- 26  NN- 10  PP-  9  CC-  6  AA- 2  GG - 1EE-  30  MM- 13  TT- 10  RR-  7  FF-  6  DD- 1  UU - 1Initial Digraphs 22 digraphs occurring 100 or more times basedon 10,748 French plain text words, according to absolutefrequencies:DE-  501  RE- 283  PI- 222  SU- 168  AU- 150  DI- 124  SO- 117CO-  394  PA- 268  IN- 178  CE- 163  NO- 133  AL- 122  VO- 112QU-  347  LE- 240  SE- 178  ET- 153  TR- 127  UN- 122  FR- 101PR-  291Trigraphs (top 97 based on 55,758 letters of French text)ENT- 588  CON- 271  EST- 188  ESS- 151  NSE- 130  EUR- 115ION- 555  ERE- 267  ERA- 185  AIT- 147  REN- 127  NTA- 115TIO- 433  ANT- 238  ECO- 184  POU- 146  SQU- 124  SER- 115ONS- 373  ESE- 230  ESD- 179  TER- 146  AIR- 123  ESO- 112RES- 367  ELA- 227  OND- 175  COM- 143  EPA- 120  DEC- 110QUE- 338  LLE- 216  LEM- 175  ESP- 139  QUI- 120  EPR- 110DES- 313  PAR- 213  NCE- 173  OUS- 139  SET- 120  ALL- 109EDE- 305  NDE- 211  ELE- 172  AIS- 137  REC- 119  ECE- 109EME- 288  SDE- 210  ESA- 163  EMA- 137  AND- 118  UNE- 108ATI- 287  DEL- 209  TDE- 163  IER- 136  ETA- 118  RAI- 106LES- 284  PRE- 206  ITE- 162  NTS- 135  SEN- 118  RLE- 106NTE- 282  OUR- 205  SSE- 160  TES- 135  PRO- 117  SSI- 106TRE- 280  RAN- 196  ONT- 157  EQU- 133  ISE- 116  ENE- 105MEN- 272  IRE- 191  ANC- 153  IQU- 131  REP- 116  SUR- 105TRA- 105  TEN- 103  BLE- 101  ETE- 100  TAT- 100ISS- 104  UEL- 102  QUA- 101  ERE- 100INT- 103  ANS- 101  CES- 101  OMM- 100 Initial Trigraphs (The 20 trigraphs appearing 50 or more timesas initials of words in 10,748  French words):CON- 213  COM- 129  FRA-  93  INT-  75  ETA-  69  SER-  61POU- 144  PRO- 105  PAR-  87  CEN-  72  DAN-  68  TRA-  57PRE- 135  ALL- 104  QUA-  80  NOU-  69  RED-  65  RES-  56VOU-  56  FAI-  50 Tetragraphs (82 top tetragraphs based on 55,758 letters ofFrench plain text)TION-431  CONS- 98  LEME-83   ERAL-71   EREN-58   RESS-55MENT-251  EPAR- 98  QUEL-83   ERES-70   ESSE-58   IERE-53ATIO-220  RESE- 96  LEMA-80   DANS-67   NOUS-58   IRES-53IONS-208  ENTE- 95  PORT-80   OUVE-67   TRES-58   TEDE-53EMEN-200  LLEM- 93  ENTS-78   EMAN-66   ENER-57   EQUE-52POUR-136  FRAN- 91  EPRE-77   SENT-66   NDES-57   NDEL-52IQUE-128  PRES- 91  EDES-76   ANDE-63   NSEI-57   ECOM-51IOND-124  ENTA- 90  ESET-76   PART-62   NTDE-57   GENE-51DELA-120  RANC- 90  INTE-75   SDES-62   CAIS-56   SEIL-51AIRE-117  ANCE- 89  ALLE-75   ESEN-61   ESTI-56   ELES-50ONDE-107  SION- 89  ANTE-75   RAIT-61   ITIO-55   ETAT-50ECON-102  COMM- 88  MAND-75   ENTD-60   NEMA-55   ILLE-50ESDE-102  ELLE- 84  CENT-74   SSIO-60   NERA-55   SQUE-50ONSE-101  NTER- 84  QUES-72   ENCE-59
    Look at the above groups. Realize how many apply to English.Such words as economy, business, energy, genes, firmament, etc.,p>Average French Word Length = 5.2 letters

    One-letter words:  A (86%)  Y(6%)  O(2%)Two-letter words:  DE LA LE ET UN EN NE AU IL DU JE ON SI SE OUSA MA ME CE VAThree-letter words: LES QUE DES QUI EST PAS UNE AUX PAR DIT ONTLUI PEU SON SUR CES CET MOT MON VIE BON CAR ILS PUR AMI VIEFour-letter words: AVEC AVEZ BIEN CEUS COUP DANS DEUX DOIS DOITDONT DOUX FAIT FAUT LEUR LUNE MAIS MOIS NOUS PEUT PLUS POURQUEL SAIT SONT TOUS TRES TROP VOUSCommon Pattern Words - Three and Four letters: ETE ICI NON SESTOT  D'UN J'AI L'AI L'ON L'OR L'OS M'EN S'EN S'IL;  CECI MEMESAIS SANS SOUS SUIS TOUT ELLE MERE PERE IDEE  C'EST D'UNE N'ESTQU'IL QU 'ON  N'ONTCommon Initials with apostrophes:  C' D' J' L' N'
    Peculiarities: In three letter words, U is proceeded by Q andfollowed by E or I (QUE, QUI) Four or five vowels may be foundin sequence. E seldom touches another vowel. D and M contactE about 75% of the time. Four consonants in a row is the most,we usually find ; where five consonants are found sequentiallythe last is an S of a plural word.

    AMCRAS has rearranged the French Frequency Table to:18 8  8  7  7  7  7  6  6  5  4  3  3  3  2  1 1 1 1   1--E  A  N  R  S  I  T  U  O  L  D  C  M  P  V  B F G H JQZXY
    Letters have many of the same characteristics as English, withvowels contacting more freely. When LE LA DE etc precede aword beginning with a vowel, the vowel is dropped; anapostrophe is substituted. (C'est for Ce est). This is a bighelp in finding vowels.

    The apostrophe is not used for possession.

    Nouns can be of any gender. Adjectives take the same gender astheir noun.

    A, as a one-letter word, has two meanings. Not accented, it isa verb, has. Accented (not in ciphers) is the preposition ,to.

    Ne, pas. The usual way to express negation, is to put nebefore the verb, pas, after it. N'est pas means not.

    When the masculine form, le or its plural les, is preceded by aA, (to) or de (from), and is followed by a word beginning witha consonant, a le is contracted to au (au pere, to the father);a les, to aux; de le, to du; de les to des.

    Some Short Words:Y, there       Ces, these    Ceci, this   Ce, cet,cette,thisAu, to the     Est, is       Cela, that   Le,la,les theDe, of, from   Lui,to him    Dans, in     Un,una,a,an,oneEn, in, by     Mon,my        Elle,she     Par, through,byEt, and        Non,no        Fait, does   Aller, goIl, he it      Oui,yes       Leur, them   Dire, say,tellJe, I          Peu,few       Mais,but     Donne, giveMe, me         Que, that     Nous,we      Faire,make,doOn, people     Qui, who      Plus,more    Lire, readOu, or where   Son, his      Pour, for    Mourir, dieSe, himself    Sur, on       Tout, all    Penser, thinkSi, if         Tot, soon     Vous, you    Respondre, answerfrom [XEN1]SOLUTION OF FRENCH ARISTOCRATFRE-1                                               [FIDDLE]       1               2           3          4        5F'  U O N Y O L   M'  Y M N   Y Z Z I L W Y   X Y   Z U C L Y6        7            8              9            10O H   W B I C R   L U C M I H H Y   Y N   G Y N B I X C K O Y 11       12       13       14       15              16X Y M   G I N M   F Y M   J F O M   O M C N Y M,    F Y M  17               18             19  20            21J F O M   H Y W Y M M U C L Y M   U   F U    W I H P Y L M U -           22   23  24               25N C I H    Y N   U   F U    W I L L Y M J I H X U H W Y.Set up the normal and cipher text alphabets as a cross check oneach other.18 8  8  7  7  7  7  6  6  5  4  3  3  3  2  1 1 1 1   1--E  A  N  R  S  I  T  U  O  L  D  C  M  P  V  B F G H JQZXY                                                       normal21 16 10 9  8  8  8  7  7  7  6  3  3  3  2  2  1  1  1Y  M  U  I  H  L  N  C  F  O  W  J  X  Z  B  G  K  P  R                                                       cipher
    The letters in the Normal table should be over or close totheir cipher equivalents, if the message is reasonably normalwording.

    Take the gimmes. The 1 letter word U=a (has,to) and therepeated U F U should be a la (to the), so F=l. Y is thehighest frequency and most likely an E. M is most likely anS from position and frequency. So FYM = les (the). XYM, esmay be either des or ces with X=d or c. Using the patterntable above, word 2 should be s'est.

    FRE-1                                               [FIDDLE]       1               2           3          4        5F'  U O N Y O L   M'  Y M N   Y Z Z I L W Y   X Y   Z U C L Yl ' a   t e       s ' e s t   e     o     e   d e     a i   e                  himself is                  of6        7            8              9            10O H   W B I C R   L U C M I H H Y   Y N   G Y N B I X C K O Y  n       n i       a i s u n n e   e t     e t   o d i     e          o                         and           u c 11       12       13       14       15              16X Y M   G I N M   F Y M   J F O M   O M C N Y M,    F Y Md e s     u t s   l e s     l   s     s i t e s     l e sof the             the                               the  17               18             19  20            21J F O M   H Y W Y M M U C L Y M   U   F U    W I H P Y L M U -  l   s   n e   e s s a i   e s   a   l a      o n   e   s a                                  to  the      u           22   23  24               25N C I H    Y N   U   F U    W I L L Y M J I H X U H W Y.t i o n    e t   a   l a      o     e s   o n d a n   e    u      and  to   the      u           uwhere:18 8  8  7  7  7  7  6  6  5  4  3  3  3  2  1 1 1 1   1--E  A  N  R  S  I  T  U  O  L  D  C  M  P  V  B F G H JQZXYY  U  H     M  C  N     I  F  X                      normal21 16 10 9  8  8  8  7  7  7  6  3  3  3  2  2  1  1  1Y  M  U  I  H  L  N  C  F  O  W  J  X  Z  B  G  K  P  Re  s  a  o  n     t  i  l           d         u                          c                cipher
    Word 6 demands O to be a vowel; as a e i o are alreadyidentified, O=u, for un (a,one). Word 14 and 17 are commonin French. It is plus (more). The first word is auteu(author.) So L=r in terms of frequency. Word 8 is raisonne(reasonably, rational). The word necessaires (necessary) alsobecomes visible. The last word is correspondence (same inEnglish). P=v because we pick up on conversation in Word 21.The final solution is:

    l'auteur s'est efforce de faire un choix raisonne methodiquedes mots les plus usites, les plus necessaires a laconversation et a la correspondence.An author forces himself to make a reasonable and methodicalchoice of words most used, most necessary to conversation andcorrespondence.

    KERCKHOFF

    Kerckhoff (aka Jean-Guillaume-Hubert-Victor-Francois-Alexandre-Auguste Kerckhoffs von Nieuwenhof, Holland) was not French butFlemish. His influence was cryptographically significant forselecting usable field ciphers. Kerckhoff was first toseparate the general system from the specific key. He told usabout superimposition to solve polyalphabetic systems. He toldus about the symmetry of position to glean more plain text fromthe cipher text. He invented the St-Cyr slide and named itafter the French national military academy where he studied."La Cryptographie militaire" gave the French a commanding leadin cryptography in World War I. He was the impetus for thosethat followed. [KERC] , [KAHN]

    FRENCH INFLUENCES - VALERIO, de VIARIS, DELASTELLE, BAZERIES

    Letter Frequencies for French, German, English, Russian,Spanish, and Italian (page 9) given by General Givierge in hisCourse In Cryptography [GIVI] differ from those presented in[FRE2]. Friedman's work is more authoritative and based onsignificantly more modern plain text. General Giviergeborrowed from Paul Louis Eugene Valerio, a captain of Artillerywho wrote in the Journal des Sciences militaires in 1892.Valerio published a book called "De la cryptographie"in 1895. The General also borrowed from de Viaris (aka MarquisGaetan Henri Leon Viarizio di Lesegno) who is famous for one ofthe first printing cipher devices, in 1874. The General mayhave included the work of Felix Marie Delastelle, who wroteTraite Elementaire de Cryptographie in 1902. Delastelle's mostfamous cipher is the bifid and will be covered at a laterlecture. Delastelle expanded Kerkhoff's symmetry of positionprinciples published in "La Cryptographie militarie" in 1883.Lastly, Etienne Bazeries influence the General quite heavily.Bazeries invented cylinder device for polyalphabeticencipherment. de Viaris solved the Bazeries cylinder in 1893.Bazeries was miffed to say the least. His device was acceptedfor use by the U.S. Army in 1922 as a field cipher device.[USAA], [BOWE], [DELA], [BAZE], [VIAR], [VIA1], [LEAU],[VALE]

    The French have brought us some talented Cryptographers.[KAHN] tells us about the famous Rossignol and his Englishcounterpart. Problem FRE-4 is taken from reference [GIVI],General Marcel Givierge classic "Cours De Cryptographie."The reader can find many French cryptogram problems in it.

    ROSSIGNOL

    Rossignol served with swashbuckling facility in the Court ofLouis XIV. His cryptographic successes gave him access tosecrets of state and the court. The poet Boisrobert (whooriginated the idea of 'Academie Francaise') wrote the firstpoem ever written to a cryptologist entitled "Epistres enVers." He was the court cryptologist of France in the timewhen Moliere was her dramatist, Pascal her philosopher, LaFontaine her fabulist and the supreme autocrat of the world hermonarch. They were influenced accordingly. [MAVE], [MAGN]

    Rossignol's technical improvements to the nomenclator systemsof the time were quite important. When Rossignol began hiscareer, nomenclators were one-part, listing both the plain andthe code elements in alphabetical order or numerical order ifthe code was numerical. Plain and code paralleled each other.This arrangement existed since the beginning of theRenaissance. Rossignol destroyed the parallel arrangements andmixed the code elements relative to the plain. Two lists wererequired, one in which the plain elements were in alphabeticalorder and the code elements were randomized. The secondfacilitated decoding in which the code elements werealphabetized and the plain equivalents were disarranged. Thetwo tables were called 'tables a chiffrer' and 'tables adechiffrer'. The two part codes are similar to a bilingualdictionary. The two part construction spread rapidly toothers countries and the nomenclator systems grew in numbersand size.

    His son Bonaventure, and his grandson Antoine-Bonadventureboth carried on the tradition started by their father. Bothwere raised from King's counselor to president of the Chamberof Accounts. The Cabinet Noir, founded under Louvois, FrancesMinister of War, at the urging of Antoine Rossignol, took extraordinary precautions (switching systems, introducing 18 newnomenclator series) was the start of Frances ironclad controlover the cipher business. It still has a tight access policytoday. [PERR], [BROG]

    Actually it was a good policy. The Vienna Black Chamber -theGeheime Kabinets - Kanzlei regularly read French ciphers up tothe cabinet level. [VAIL], [STIX]

    WALLIS

    England had its Black Chamber. John Wallis was Rossignol'scontemporary. He was first a mathematician, giving us the germof the binomial theorem, the symbol and concept of infinity, acalculation of pi by interpolation and the beginnings ofcalculus for Newton to do his thing with. John Wallis'solution of Louis XIV of France letter of 9 June 1693 put inthe record books.

    Their careers parallel each other. They were almostcontemporaries, Rossignol was 16 years older. Both made theirstart on civil war ciphers in their twenties. Both had amathematical bent. Both were self-taught. Both lived intotheir eighties. Both owed their worldly success tocryptanalysis. Both became their countries' Fathers ofCryptology in both the literal and figurative sense. But theywere different too. Rossignol worked at court while Wallisworked at Oxford. Rossignol introduced new systems for theFrench and supervised their use. Wallis apparently prescribedonly one English cipher and that was doneinformally. [SMIH]

    It is unlikely that these cryptologic experts ever clashedcryptologically despite the contentious natures of bothcountries. [WALL] , [NIC6]

    ITALIAN - the language like music

    ITALIAN DATA [ Based on 57,906 letters of text in FRE2]

    Absolute FrequenciesA   6,771    G   1,168  L   3,592  Q     227  V  1,024B     527    H     493  M   1,441  R   4,037  W     13C   2,367    I   6,568  N   4.094  S   2,967  X      9D   2,258    J      18  O   5,022  T   4,139  Y     14E   6,784    K      28  P   1,616  U   1,547  Z    527F     655                                       ======                                                57,906Monographic Kappa Plain, Italian Language = 0.0745, I.C.= 1.94Relative Frequencies, based on 57,906 letters of Italian plaintext referenced in FRE2 reduced to 1000 letters:E     117    R    70    P    28    F    11     K    -A     117    L    62    U    27    B    11     J    -I     113    S    51    M    25    Z     9     Y    -O      87    C    41    G    20    H     9     W    -T      72    D    39    V    18    Q     4     X    -N      71                                         =======                                                   1,000GroupsVowels:  A, E, I, O, U, Y   = 46.1%High-Frequency Consonants: L, N, R, T = 27.4%Medium-Frequency Consonants: C, D, G, M, P, S = 22.2%Low-Frequency Consonants:B,F,H,J,K,Q,W,X,Z = 4.3 %8 most frequent letters: (E, A, I, O, T, N, R and L) = 70.8%       (descending order)
    Note again that similarities of group frequencies for German,French, English and Italian are statistically significant.

    Initials ( based on 10,481 letters of Italian plain text, Oneletter words have been omitted.)D   1,381     L    500    T   337    U   217    J    13C   1,041     R    403    G   333    Q   172    W     9S     885     N    396    F   298    B   153    K     6P     830     E    374    V   263    H    69    Y     3A     822     M    371    O   235    Z    29    X     2I     685                                         ======                                                  10,481Digraphs [Frequency Distribution of Digraphs based on 57,847letters of Italian plain text reduced to 5,000 digraphs]
    A B C D E F G H I J K L MA 18 9 39 41 14 12 22 1 19 76 24B 10 7 7 10 1C 32 10 20 33 33 2D 31 1 65 64E 23 7 31 53 15 8 22 2 25 66 18F 9 11 7 11 1G 9 11 8 2 20 17H 6 27 9I 66 8 52 30 31 11 11 2 11 35 31JKL 62 3 8 6 49 2 7 56 52 4M 31 5 35 17 4N 32 1 15 26 51 6 11 1 37 3 1O 17 4 22 27 10 5 10 1 20 45 24P 23 30 14 2QR 64 1 8 8 71 1 7 63 4 13S 20 15 1 32 2 45 2 3T 83 1 65 1 59 1U 12 2 4 3 15 1 3 10 6 3V 26 23 23WXYZ 13 4 20

    Digraphs [Frequency Distribution of Digraphs based on 57,847letters of Italian plain text reduced to 5,000 digraphs] N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZA 78 5 24 4 57 36 63 6 24 12B 4 4 2C 64 1 5 6D 23 2 9E 73 6 22 4 96 62 27 6 17 4F 10 6 3G 8 9 11 6HI 62 44 20 3 20 48 45 15 16 7J 1KL 2 21 5 1 3 6 15 7 3M 18 13 2N 10 50 4 5 2 11 66 8 4 11O 86 4 25 2 55 40 14 3 18 2P 28 11 23 7Q 20R 9 45 2 12 9 16 10 3 3S 25 9 31 58 12 1T 1 56 43 1 37 10U 24 8 6 9 11 150 1V 10 2 2 2WXYZ 3 5
    Digraphic Kappa plain, Italian = 0.0081, I.C. = 5.4889 Digraphs comprising 75% of Italian plain text based on 5,000digraphs arranged according to relative frequencies.ER- 96 RI- 63 LL- 52 AC- 38 MA- 31 HE- 25 VE- 23ON- 86 IA- 63 IC- 51 TT- 37 SS- 31 OP- 25 OC- 22TA- 78 LA- 62 NE- 50 b)==== DA- 31 AM- 24 AG- 22AN- 78 IN- 62 NO- 50 NI- 37 EC- 30 UN- 24 EG- 22AL- 76 a)==== LE- 49 ME- 35 PE- 30 EI- 24 EP- 22EN- 73 RA- 62 IS- 48 AS- 35 ID- 30 AV- 24 LO- 21RE- 71 ES- 61 IT- 45 IL- 35 IE- 30 OM- 24 IP- 20NT- 66 TI- 59 OL- 45 CH- 33 PO- 28 PA- 23 ZI- 20DE- 65 ST- 58 RO- 45 CI- 33 OD- 27 DO- 23 SA- 20TE- 65 AR- 57 SI- 44 RA- 32 ET- 27 VI- 23 CE- 20EL- 65 TO- 56 IO- 43 SE- 32 VA- 26 AP- 23 QU- 20DI- 64 LI- 56 TR- 43 CA- 32 ND- 26 PR- 23 GI- 20CO- 64 OR- 55 OS- 40 IM- 31 SO- 25 EA- 23 =======AT- 63 ED- 52 AD- 39 3,762
      a) 18 digraphs (1,260 total count, above this line represent 25% of Italian plainb) 43 digraphs (2,495 total count, above this line represent 50% of Italian plain
    Frequent Digraph Reversals (based on table of 5,000 digraphs)ER- 96 RE- 71 EL- 66 LE- 49 LI- 56 IL- 35ON- 86 NO- 50 DE- 65 ED- 53 OR- 55 RO- 45TA- 83 AT- 63 RA- 64 AR- 57 IC- 52 CI- 33AN- 78 NA- 32 IN- 62 NI- 37 IS- 48 SI- 45AL- 76 LA- 62 ES- 62 SE- 32 AD- 41 DA- 31EN- 73 NE- 51 TI- 59 IT- 45 AC- 39 CA- 32Rare Digraph Reversals (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)NT- 66 TN- 1 ST- 58 TS- 1 CH- 33 HC-0Doublets (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)LL- 52 AA- 18 II- 11 NN- 10 FF- 7 MM- 4 VV - 2TT- 37 EE- 15 PP- 11 GG- 8 ZZ- 5 OO- 4 DD - 1SS- 31 RR- 12 CC- 10 BB- 7Initial Digraphs (26 digraphs occurring 100 or more times basedon 10,481 Italian plain text words, according to absolutefrequencies:)CO- 543 PE- 210 PR- 184 NO- 154 SE- 121 MA- 112 RE- 108DE- 505 CH- 197 QU- 172 PA- 153 SO- 121 UN- 111 ES- 107ST- 222 AL- 186 NE- 169 PO- 141 TR- 121 SU- 109 TE- 103DI- 215 IN- 185 RI- 162 CA- 132 DA- 120Trigraphs (top 90 based on 57,906 letters of Italian text)DEL- 348 STA- 215 ERE- 169 ICA- 145 SSI- 130 ODI- 114ENT- 348 ALI- 213 ZIO- 166 RAN- 145 NEL- 127 ORI- 114ELL- 314 EDI- 212 ATO- 165 STR- 145 ACO- 125 RMA- 114CON- 306 ALL- 201 NTI- 165 ALE- 144 ATI- 125 AME- 113CHE- 276 ITA- 198 ANT- 163 IDI- 143 IDE- 123 ETT- 113LLA- 274 ANO- 197 ERA- 163 COM- 139 ADI- 121 ODE- 113ION- 265 OST- 196 TRA- 160 ECO- 137 AND- 121 PRE- 112ONE- 247 ERI- 187 ESS- 158 LLE- 137 TEN- 120 NDO- 110PER- 238 ARE- 186 ATT- 157 ONT- 136 ONO- 119 ONI- 110EDE- 228 TAL- 184 NTO- 156 TER- 136 ARI- 117 AZI- 109NTE- 227 LIA- 180 ADE- 155 TAT- 134 NTR- 117 ENE- 109ICO- 216 IST- 174 EST- 151 TTA- 132 PAR- 116 ELA- 107MEN- 216 CLI- 171 RES- 146 ATA- 130 TRO- 116 ERO- 107ESI- 107COR- 106IAN- 106TAN- 105ATE- 104NON- 103VER- 103ICA- 101OLA- 101STI- 101OCO- 100RIA- 100Initial Trigraphs (The 19 trigraphs appearing 50 or more timesas initials of words in 10,481 Italian words):DEL- 217 STA- 106 QUA- 83 PRE- 62 DAL- 57 PER- 55CON- 195 ALL- 100 PRO- 75 NEL- 57 ANC- 56 RUS- 55COM- 137 ITA- 94 QUE- 74GRA- 53 STO- 51Tetragraphs (57 top tetragraphs based on 57,906 letters ofItalian plain text):DELL-209 ALIA- 99 ICON-74 AGLI-66 LIAN-59 OPER-56MENT-188 CONT- 93 VANO-74 ICHE-66 TORI-59 RUSS-56IONE-160 ADEL- 92 ECON-73 IDEL-64 ALLE-58 TATO-55ELLA-150 OSTR- 88 IONI-71 ELLE-63 ANDO-58 TEDE-55ZION-147 ENTO- 87 STAT-70 NELL-63 DALL-58 OCON-54TALI-125 AMEN- 83 STRA-70 IMEN-61 NTRO-58 SION-53AZIO-106 ALLA- 81 GLIA-69 ANTI-60 OCHE-58 TANT-53EDEL-106 ENZA- 75 ISTA-68 ATTA-60 ANTE-57 STOP-52ITAL-106 ONTR- 75 ODEL-68 PART-60 EPER-57 NOST-51ENTE-105 ENTI- 74 ACON-66Average Italian word length = 5.2 lettersOne-letter words: E (56%) A (22%) I (14%) O (8%)Two-letter words: DI LA UN IL SI LE DA MA IN AL VI SE HA NEHO LO AD ED VA IOThree-letter words: CHE UNA PER CON DEL PIU GLI NEL DEI MIA SIADUE ERA MIO MAI CHI;Four-letter words: BUON COME COSA COSI DICE DIRE DOVE ERAN FAREGREAN OGNI PERO QUEL VITACommon Pattern Words - Three and Four letters: NON ; ALLA ANNIANO BENE ESSA ESSE MODO POCO SONO UOMO VEDECommon Initials with apostrophes: D' I' L' S'Common words with apostrophes: C'E CH' GL' OR' PO' EN' DOV'VID' ALL' TIEN' DOV'E BUON' DELL' NELL'
    Peculiarities: Vowels constitute about half of the languageletters. Highest contacts are with L N R T. H is precededby C or G. Q is followed by U and another vowel. See [XENO]for additional rules. [SACC] gives data on consonantsequences.

    Consonant doubling is frequent: L T S C R G P N B M Z F V I DFinals in order: O E A I; Rare R L D N[SACC] gives us the following common consonant three lettersequences:STR NTR LTR TTR NDR SCR NGL NFL NGR SPL NCH RCH SCHMPR PPR FFR BBL MBR CCHR S L may be found in any one of these groups, rarely H.Common prepositions: A CON DA DI IN PER SUThe Italian Frequency Table rearranged:18 12 11 9  7  6  6  6  5  5  3  3  3  3  2  2 1 1 1 1 -E  A  I  O  L  N  R  T  S  C  D  M  P  U  V  G Z F B H Q

    SOLUTION OF ITALIAN ARISTOCRAT

    ITA -1.                            MON NOM1    2         3       4   5    6    7    8        9    10YT  GNLYJO  *LSISVAS,  KN  JH  TST  JY  MHOLYKEY   IOY  JHSY11      12    13     14    15      16      17   18    19GYBYY,  JH  AYTYLOY  OI  HRRYIYLN  VSLS,  ESUN  HTS  KEZYOGS20     21        22  23     24EZN   HRRYIYKEN  YV  KHS  QOILSTN.Listing the short words:YT  KN  JH-2  JY  OI  YV  TST  IOY  EZN  KHS  HTSTake a frequency count of finals:Y-7  N-6  S-5  H-2  T-2  O I V -1
    Since highest frequency finals are usually vowels, Y N S and Hmay be vowels and word 6 TST could be NON. If this assumptionis correct then word 18 is UNO. Further YT = in and YY =ii inword 11. Word YV = il.

    Substituting our guesses:1    2         3       4   5    6    7    8        9    10YT  GNLYJO  *LSISVAS,  KN  JH  TST  JY  MHOLYKEY   IOY  JHSYin   eri     ro ol o   se   u  non   i   u ris i     i   uoi11      12    13     14    15      16      17   18    19GYBYY,  JH  AYTYLOY  OI  HRRYIYLN  VSLS,  ESUN  HTS  KEZYOGS i ii    u   inir i      u  i ire  loro   co e  uno  s hi  o20     21        22  23     24EZN   HRRYIYKEN  YV  KHS  QOILSTN.che   u  i is e  il  suo     rone  
    Word 17 L=r for loro.

    The initals are S or P. Word 23 is Suo or or Puo. But word 4would be Se or Sa but not pe or pa. Try K=s. We should lookfor CHE (that) and the likely candidate is EZN.

    Substituting again in above we have four additional words.OI and IOY suggest ad and dal. By frequency J=t.

    The solution reads:

    In verita Rodolfo, se tu non ti guaristi dai tuoi vizii, tu finirai ad ubbidire loro, come uno schiavo che ubbidisce il suo padrone.

    GENERAL LUIGI SACCO

    One of Italy's most brilliant cryptographers, his manual givesdetailed solutions of various transposition, monoalphabetic andpolyalphabetic systems. His appendix details the equationsused for such interesting problems as de Viaris polyalphabeticsubstitution, Kerckhoff's ciphers and the Hill algebraicproblem. [SACC] [The reading is difficult and a littledisorganized but the digging is rewarding. ]

    SPANISH - The language of passion. [SPAN]

    SPANISH DATA [ Based on 60,115 letters of text in [FRE2] and[SPAN]

    Absolute FrequenciesA   6,681    G    823   L   2,174  Q    346   V    602B     799    H    367   M   1,740  R  4,628   W     36C   3,137    I  4,920   N   4,823  S  4,140   X    127D   2,687    J    190   O   5,859  T  3,180   Y    413E   7,801    K     22   P   1,785  U  2,172   Z    182F     481                                       ======                                                60,115Monographic Kappa Plain, Spanish Language = 0.0747, I.C.= 1.94Relative Frequencies, based on 60,115 letters of Spanish plaintext referenced in [FRE2] and [SPAN] reduced to 1000 letters:E     130    S    69    U    36    V    10     J     3A     111    T    53    P    30    F     8     Z     3O      97    C    52    M    29    Y     7     X     2I      82    D    45    G    14    H     6     W     1N      80    L    36    B    13    Q     6     K     -R      77                                         =======                                                   1,000GroupsVowels: A, E, I, O, U, Y   = 46.3%High-Frequency Consonants: N, R, S = 22.6%Medium-Frequency Consonants: C, D, L, M, P, T = 24.5%Low-Frequency Consonants: B,F,G,H,J,K,Q,V,W,X,Z = 6.6 %7 most frequent letters: (E, A, O, I, N, R, S) = 64.6%       (descending order)Note that group frequencies between German and Spanish arestatistically similar.Initials ( based on 10,129 letters of Spanish plain text, Oneletter words have been omitted.)P   1,128     L    435    Q   286    V   183    Y    27C   1,081     R    425    I   281    F   177    W    19D   1,012     M    403    H   230    O   169    Z     2E     989     N    346    U   219    B   124    K     1S     789     T    298    G   206    J    47    XA     761                                         ======                                                  10,129Digraphs [Frequency Distribution of Digraphs based on 60,115letters of Spanish plain text reduced to 5,000 digraphs]   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   MA 12  14  54  64  15   5   8   4  10   8      41  30B 11               5              14   1      12C 39       5      17           8  80           3D 32       1   2  84           1  30E 20   5  47  26  17   8  21   6   9   3      44  26F  2               9              12           1G 12              12               5           1H 15               3               5I 43   8  42  29  40   5   8           1      14  16J  4               5K                  1L 44       5   5  35   1   3      28           9   5M 32  10          42              30N 41   2  33  37  41  10   6   2  28   1       5   4O 19  17  28  26  16   6   5   5   4   1      22  33P 30       1      16               5           8QR 74   1  12  10  94   1  12      45   1   1   6  15S 32   2  18  15  57   3   2   4  41   1       5   7T 60       1      67              35U 13   6  11   5  52   1   3       9           9   6V 12           1  15              15W  1               1X          1       4Y  5   1   3   2   5   1   1                   1   1Z  6       1   1
    Digraphs [Frequency Distribution of Digraphs based on 60,115letters of Spanish plain text reduced to 5,000 digraphs] N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZA 64 4 24 5 81 62 18 9 9 11 4B 5 12 2 1 3C 69 6 13 18D 1 59 2 1 3 1 6 1E 126 5 23 4 94 119 17 5 10 1 8 2 3F 7 4 5G 2 15 11 1 11H 6 1I 50 67 4 1 16 27 24 1 8 5J 3 3KL 1 17 5 1 2 4 5 5 3 1M 15 10 6N 3 43 10 2 4 21 91 12 6 1 1O 104 4 29 7 58 73 12 3 5 2 9 1P 31 34 1 3 19Q 29R 11 43 7 3 10 10 15 9 6 1 1S 5 22 26 4 6 10 57 23 2 4T 56 34 11U 34 1 3 9 10 4 1 2V 7W 1X 3 2Y 1 5 2 1 1 3 1 1Z 3 2
    Digraphic Kappa plain, Spanish = 0.0091, I.C. = 6.1587 Digraphs comprising 75% of Spanish plain text based on 5,000digraphs arranged according to relative frequencies.EN- 126 TE- 67 IN- 50 NA- 41 MA- 32 IS- 27 EA- 20ES- 119 AN- 64 EC- 47 IE- 40 SA- 32 EM- 26 OA- 19ON- 104 a)==== RI- 45 b)==== PO- 31 SP- 26 PU- 19ER- 94 AD- 64 EL- 44 CA- 39 MI- 30 ED- 26 SC- 18RE- 94 AS- 62 LA- 44 ND- 37 PA- 30 OD- 26 AT- 18NT- 91 TA- 60 RO- 43 TI- 35 AD- 30 AP- 24 CU- 18DE- 84 DO- 59 NO- 43 LE- 35 DI- 30 IT- 24 EE- 17AR- 81 OR- 58 IA- 43 TR- 34 ID- 29 EP- 23 OB- 17CI- 80 SE- 57 IC- 42 UN- 34 QU- 29 SU- 23 CE- 17RA- 74 ST- 57 ME- 42 PR- 34 OP- 29 SO- 22 ET- 17OS- 73 TO- 56 AL- 41 OM- 33 LI- 28 OL- 22 LO- 17CO- 69 AC- 54 SI- 41 NC- 33 NI- 28 NS- 21IO- 67 UE- 52 NE- 41 DA- 32 OC- 28 EG- 22 ===== 3,753
    Frequent Digraph Reversals (based on table of 5,000 digraphs)EN-  126   NE- 41  AR- 81  RA- 74  AS- 62  SA- 32  LA- 44ES-  119   SE- 57  CI- 80  IC- 42  OR- 58  RO- 43  EL- 44ON-  104   NO- 43  AN- 64  NA- 41  AC- 54  CA- 39  MA- 32ER-   94   RE- 94  AD- 64  DA- 32  AL- 41  LE- 35  AM- 30Rare Digraph Reversals (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)NT-   91   TN-  0  ST- 57  TS- 0  ND- 37  DN-1  NC- 33 CN-0IO-   67   OI-  4Doublets (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)EE-  17  AA- 12  RR- 10  SS- 10  LL-  9  CC- 5  OO - 4NN-   3  DD-  2 Initial Digraphs 21 digraphs occurring 100 or more times basedon 10,129 Spanish plain text words, according to absolutefrequencies:CO-  684  PR- 307  PA- 263  SE- 189  CA- 151  PE- 111  MA- 101RE-  335  ES- 286  PO- 247  DI- 175  SI- 137  UN- 109  CU- 100DE-  323  QU- 286  IN- 235  PU- 157  MI- 117  HA- 108  SO- 100Trigraphs (top 105 based on 60,115 letters of Spanish text)ENT- 596  ARA- 229  POR-  176  OSE- 147   ERO- 131   NDE- 121ION- 564  ONE- 227  TER-  174  ONS- 144   ONT- 131   RAN- 121CIO- 502  ESE- 202  ODE-  168  REC- 144   ANA- 130   STE- 119NTE- 429  ADE- 293  ERE-  166  ORE- 143   ARE- 129   REN- 118CON- 415  PAR- 190  ERA-  165  OCO- 142   UNT- 127   ARI- 117EST- 355  CIA- 190  TRA-  165  EDE- 141   ANO- 127   TEN- 116RES- 335  ENC- 188  AME-  165  ICI- 140   TAR- 126   OND- 115ADO- 307  NCI- 184  ERI-  163  END- 139   ANT- 126   RIA- 115QUE- 294  PRE- 183  MER-  162  SEN- 139   ESA- 126   ECI- 114ACI- 277  DEL- 183  ELA-  159  TAD- 138   IER- 125   IST- 113NTO- 270  NDO- 183  PRO-  158  ECO- 135   ADA- 125   ONA- 113IEM- 267  NES- 183  ACO-  155  STR- 134   DEN- 124   DAD- 112COM- 246  DOS- 182  ENE-  153  TOS- 133   AND- 123   INT- 112ICA- 242  MEN- 181  UES-  151  IDA- 132   DES- 121   NTR- 112STA- 240  NTA- 176  ESP-  149  SDE- 132   IDO- 121   ESI- 111PER- 111ASE- 109CAN- 109UNI- 108OSI- 107GEN- 105NCO- 105RIO- 105ERN- 104OMI- 104SCO- 104TES- 103BIE- 101NTI- 100TOR- 100Tetragraphs (86 top tetragraphs based on 60,115 letters ofSpanish plain text)CION- 444 CONS- 104 ERNO-  79 AMER- 72  FORM- 62  EEST- 55ACIO- 252 CONT-  99 IERN-  78 IEND- 72  SENT- 62  SCON- 55ENTE- 233 PUNT-  95 OQUE-  78 IDAD- 71  ICIO- 61  SIDE- 55ESTA- 174 ANDO-  91 IONA-  77 ENDO- 70  ONTR- 60  CIEN- 54IONE- 159 TADO-  91 UEST-  77 ERIC- 70  SION- 60  NFOR- 54MENT- 150 ACON-  90 BIER-  76 NTOS- 70  CCIO- 59  OPOR- 54ONES- 146 ANTE-  89 ICAN-  76 MIEN- 69  GENT- 58  RESP- 54IENT- 141 NTER-  85 RESE-  76 IOND- 67  COMA- 57  ARIO- 53ENTO- 137 INTE-  84 GOBI-  75 MERI- 67  ESDE- 57  ESTR- 53ENCI- 128 NTES-  82 OBIE-  75 NTRA- 67  ORES- 57  ARGE- 51PARA- 117 ADOS   81 ECON-  74 DELA- 65  RECI- 57  ECTO- 51ENTA- 115 AMEN-  81 RGEN-  73 ENTI- 64  AQUE- 56  PART- 51NCIA- 115 OCON-  81 RICA-  73 NTIN- 64  IONP- 56  POSI- 51PRES- 111 ESEN-  80 STAD-  73 COMI- 63  QUES- 56  EPRE- 50UNTO- 111 ONDE-  80
    Look at the above groups. Realize how many apply to English.Such words as economy, business, energy, genes, firmament, etc.

    Initial Trigraphs (The 19 trigraphs appearing 50 or more timesas initials of words in 10,129  Spanish words):CON- 298  PAR- 154  PUN-  93  INT-  72  UNI-  55  CUA-  52COM- 218  PRO- 139  PER-  80  RES-  72  DES-  53  TRA-  52EST- 194  PRE- 114  GOB-  66  NUE-  66  INF-  53  REP-  51ARG-  50Average Spanish Word Length = 5.9 lettersOne-letter words: Y(63%) A(32%) O(4%) N(1%) ETwo-letter words: DE LA EL EN ES UN NO SE SU LO LA HA MI ME ALYOThree-letter words: QUE LOS UNA POR DEL CON LAS MAS SON SER UNOSIN HAY MIS SUS ESEInitials: C P A S M E D T H V R U N I L B O F Q GFinals: O A S E N R B D L I ZRearranged Frequency:13 13 9  8 7 7 7 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - - - - - -E  A  O  S R N I D L C T U M P G Y B Q V H F Z J X CH LL RR N^
    The Spanish alphabet consists of 24 letters (sans K W rare)plus four distinct ones: n^ (counted as n) ch, ll, rr. Thesefour additional are alphabetized as single letter consonants.My keyboard does not have the appropriate symbol the tilde toput over the n so I have used the hat symbol.

    Peculiarities:The apostrophe is not used.

    The question and exclamation marks appear at the end of thesentence, and are inverted at the beginning.

    Q is followed by UE or UI.

    The article the and pronouns he, she, it, they, are expressedby: el=the, he; la=the, she; lo=the, it; los =the, they;las=the, they (fem).

    Some Short Words:
      A. at, to, on, by, in, up,as, if, for, like, with ofE. andO. or, repeatedU. before o or hoY. andNi. norMas. but, yet, more, overComo. HowUn, una. an, one.Este, estos, estas, esta. this, theseYo, I; mi=me; mia=my, mineUsted. youLa, elle. she, theSu. possesive pronounEse,esa,eso. whoQuien. who, whomCual. whichEstar. to behaber. to have

    SOLVING SPANISH CRYPTOGRAMS

    A good place to initially attack a Spanish cryptogram isthrough short words that appear in the cryptogram, especiallysingle-letter and double letter words. A single letter wordwill usually be A or Y with a rare O. Look at the frequencies.Move on to the two and three letter words and cross referencethe plain text with the cipher text alphabet. Reference [SPAN]has many practice cryptograms with hints. And now for our lastforay with Xenocrypts we look at Portuguese.

    PORTUGUESE One of the world's toughest languages. [PORT]

    PORTUGUESE DATA [ Based on 45,106 letters of text in FRE2]

    Absolute FrequenciesA   5,362    G    724   L   1,245  Q    348   V    737B     470    H    304   M   1,699  R  3,292   W     24C   2,285    I  3,314   N   2,912  S  3,409   X    166D   1,900    J    160   O   5,001  T  2,679   Y     22E   5,441    K     17   P   1,377  U  1,491   Z    207F     520                                       ======                                                45,106Monographic Kappa Plain, Portuguese Language = 0.0746, I.C.=1.940Relative Frequencies, based on 45,106 letters of Portugueseplain text referenced in FRE2 reduced to 1000 letters:E     121    N    65    U    33    F    11     X     4A     119    T    59    P    30    B    10     J     3O     111    C    51    L    28    Q     8     W     1S      76    D    42    V    16    H     7     Y     -I      73    M    38    G    16    Z     5     K     -R      73                                         =======                                                   1,000Groups:Vowels: A, E, I, O, U, Y= 45.8%High-Frequency Consonants: N, R, S, =21.3%Medium-Frequency Consonants: C, D, L, M, P, T= 24.8%Low-Frequency Consonants: B,F,G,H,J,K,Q,V,W,X,Y,Z = 8.1 %8 most frequent letters (E, A, O, S, I, R, N, and T) = 69.7%       (descending order)
    Note that group frequencies between French, Spanish, Italianand Portuguese are statistically similar.

    Initials ( based on 7,058 letters of Portuguese plain text, Oneletter words have been omitted.)P     847     M    405    I   264    B   113    Z    14C     731     T    348    F   222    G   111    W    11E     608     R    316    Q   222    J    92    K     7S     601     N    299    O   187    U    77    Y     4A     597     V    271    L   143    H    60    X     2D     506                                         ======                                                   7,058Digraphs [Frequency Distribution of Digraphs based on 45,106letters of Portuguese plain text reduced to 5,000 digraphs]   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   MA 11  11  52  60  15   9  14   2  18   2      38  36B 11           1  10               5           2   1C 60       2      30           4  39           5D 45              61              33               1E 15   5  48  22  11  11  23   1  27   6   1  31  44F  9              14              13           1G 15              14               4           1H 10               8               3I 42   3  34  31   6   7   9       1          16  22J  7               2KL 24   1   4   4  24   1   5   9  21           2   4M 41  10   3   4  51   1          26   1       1   2N 31      29  35  14   7   8   12 18O 21   9  32  25  27  10   7    3 20   4      20  36P 26       2      25               2           4Q                  1R 75   2  14   9  86   3   7   1  46   1       2  18S 41   6  22  10  62   6   3   2  23   2       3  12T 65       1   1  69   1          26U 22   5   5   7  26   1   4      18   1      14  11V 11              37              23W  1X 10       3       1               2YZ  7       1       9               2               1
    Digraphs [Frequency Distribution of Digraphs based on 45,106letters of Portuguese plain text reduced to 5,000 digraphs] N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZA 56 49 23 8 68 72 22 8 16 1 5B 9 9 2 1 2C 1 85 7 8 12D 61 2 1 1 5E 97 6 18 6 76 95 20 7 12 1 15 5F 15 2 3G 1 14 14 15H 11 1I 53 26 5 2 25 39 27 2 10 2 7J 2 7KL 2 14 4 2 1 4 7 6 2M 1 16 15 1 3 5 2 6 2N 25 1 19 114 4 4 1O 79 5 35 8 71 85 18 12 22 1 1 1 1P 1 60 1 1 28 1 1 3Q 37R 8 34 7 3 11 8 18 4 6 1S 5 23 35 7 4 40 47 18 5T 1 88 33 1 13U 17 2 4 7 9 6 11 1 2V 9 1WX 3 1YZ 1 1 1
    Digraphic Kappa plain, Portuguese = 0.0084, I.C. = 5.6891 Digraphs comprising 75% of Portuguese plain text based on5,000 digraphs arranged according to relative frequencies.NT- 114 TA-65 ST- 47 AM- 36 CE- 30 OD- 25 AT- 22EN- 97 a)==== RI- 46 b)==== NC- 29 NO- 25 UA- 22ES- 95 SE-62 DA- 45 ND- 35 PR- 28 LA- 24 GA- 21TO- 88 DO-61 EM- 44 OP- 35 IT- 27 LE- 24 LI- 21RE- 86 DE-61 IA- 42 SP 35 OE- 27 AP- 23 OL- 20CO- 85 AD-60 MA- 41 RO- 34 EI- 27 EG- 23 ET- 20OS- 85 PO-60 SA- 41 IC- 34 UE- 26 VI- 23 OI- 20ON- 79 CA-60 SS- 40 TR- 33 MI- 26 SO- 23 NS- 19ER- 76 AN-56 CI- 39 DI- 33 IO- 26 SI- 23 SU- 18RA- 75 IN-53 IS- 39 OC- 32 PA- 26 OV- 22 RT- 18AS- 72 AC-52 AL- 38 EL- 31 TI- 26 SC- 22 EP- 18OR- 71 ME-51 VE- 37 ID- 31 PE- 25 IM- 22 UI- 18TE- 69 AO-49 QU- 37 NA- 31 IR- 25 ED- 22 =====AR- 68 EC-48 OM- 36 3,755
    Frequent Digraph Reversals (based on table of 5,000 digraphs)ES-   95   SE- 62  OR- 71  RO- 34  ME- 51  EM- 44RE-   86   ER- 76  CA- 60  AC- 48  EC- 48  CE- 40CO-   85   OC- 32  AD- 60  DA- 41  MA- 41  AM- 36RA-   75   AR- 58  PO- 60  OP- 39  CI- 39  IC- 34AS-   72   SA- 41  AN- 56  NA- 33  DI- 33  ID- 31Rare Digraph Reversals (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)NT-  114   TN-  1  ST- 47  TS- 0  ND- 35  DN-0Doublets (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)SS-  40  EE- 11  OO-  5  LL-  2  II-  1  PP- 1  TT - 1AA-  11  RR- 11  CC-  2  MM-  2Initial Digraphs 20 digraphs occurring 100 or more times basedon  6,803 Portuguese plain text words, according to absolutefrequencies:CO-  464  RE- 276  IN- 188  PA- 143  MA- 130  ME- 111  TR- 103PO-  386  DE- 259  ES- 173  NA- 133  PE- 122  MI- 105  DI- 102SE-  333  QU- 220  PR- 169  TE- 132  VE- 115  NO- 104 Trigraphs (top 59 based on 45,106 letters of Portuguese text):ENT- 474  TOS- 191  ERE- 150  IDA- 133  OSE- 126  ECE- 115NTO- 457  EST- 186  CIA- 145  TER- 132  ARE- 125  NCI- 114ONT- 303  ACA- 182  ADE- 143  OPO- 130  ESE- 124  REC- 113NTE- 284  PES- 181  STA- 143  SPO- 130  OVE- 124  PAR- 112CON- 255  QUE- 172  ICA- 142  ADA- 129  SSA- 124  ESS- 110PON- 236  NTA- 167  OCO- 140  TRA- 129  DES- 123  DAD- 109CAO- 227  POR- 159  ARA- 136  NDO- 127  ECO- 121  ORE- 108ADO- 211  ACO- 158  DOS- 134  ENC- 126  ODE- 118  EDI- 107MEN- 205  COM- 154  OES- 134ASE- 105ITO- 104ELE- 103ERI- 103PRO- 102AME- 101OSS- 101IME- 100Initial Trigraphs (The 19 trigraphs appearing 50 or more timesas initials of words in 6,803  Portuguese words):CON- 224  QUE- 109  PRO-  93  QUA-  83  TRA-  66  VEX-  53PON- 213  EST- 105  POR-  88  DES-  71  MIL-  61  IND-  52COM- 136  PAR-  93  NAO-  86  SER-  70  REF-  56  RES-  52REC-  51Tetragraphs (38 top tetragraphs based on 45,106 letters ofPortuguese plain text)ONTO-233  ENTA- 97  AMEN-81   CONT-58   CONS-58   RENT-52PONT-221  NCIA- 95  PARA-81   FORM-57   NTES-58   TELE-52MENT-183  PORT- 87  COES-73   OCON-66   ANDO-57   EGRA-51ENTO-173  DADE- 86  IDAD-71   ELEG-61   ANTE-57   NFOR-51ENTE-147  ESTA- 85  CENT-70   ADOS-60   ORMA-54   OPON-51ACAO-142  ENCI- 83  INTE-70   IMEN-60   VEXA-54   LEGR-50NTOS-141  SPON- 83
    Look at the above groups. Realize how many apply to English.Such words as economy, business, energy, genes, firmament, etc.

    Average Portuguese Word Length = 6.48 letters

    One-letter words: A O E D'Two-letter words: DE UM AS SE DO OS EM NA NOThree-letter words: QUE NAO UMA COM POR TAO MAS MEU DAS ERA LHENEM NOS SER SIM SUA;  ELEFour-letter words: AZUL DIAS DUAS ESTA MAIS MEUS NOME PODE QUEMTRES VIDA;  SEUS SUAS COMO PARA TODOCommon Pattern Words - Three and Four letters:Normal frequency rearranged:14 13 12 8 8 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 - -A  E  O  R S I N D M T U C L P Q V F G H B J Z X                                           from [XENO]Peculiarities:
    The Portuguese language uses the standard Roman alphabet, butthe letters K W Y are used in foreign words. Like Spanish,however the cion becomes cal, the ll goes to lh. Articles dropthe inital l; the Spanish las and los become as and os inPortuguese.

    Plurals end in -s; such as -es,-is, -oes, and -aes are common.Adjectives carry the plural along with the noun they modify.

    SOLUTION OF PORTUGUESE ARISTOCRAT

    POR-1.  (156) Flying very high.              BARKER1                    2                  3P J    G J R B P H G Y R G J    I C W Q G B G B G A3        4             5                 6       7U Y C    G    B C W Y X C B G W G P     I C    I P D J8                     9           10Y G R C Q D R C J     G    I C B D Z G         11              12        13          14W P H J R D R Y D G     Y A G    X B P Z G     I G         15                   16         17       18Z C B J G R D Q D I G I C     I G     H G Z  C     C  19      20          21        22      23A G D J    Y A    X G J J P    X G B G    G           24          25          26           27W P H J R B Y W G P     H P      C J X G W P     I C 28               29                30Y A G     C J R G W G P      X C B A G H C H R C.Set up the cross reference alphabets:31 18 14 12 11 10 9  8  8  8  7  6  6  4  3  1     0G  C  J  P  B  R  I  Y  W  D  H  A  X  Z  Q  U  EFKLMNOSTV                                                -Cipher14 12 12 8  8  6  6  5  5  5  4  4  4  3  2  2  1  1     0A  E  O  R  S  I  N  D  M  T  U  C  L  P  Q  V  F  GHBJ ZX                                                -Normal
    1                    2                  3  s    a           a     a s      e     a   a   aP J    G J R B P H G Y R G J    I C W Q G B G B G A3        4             5                 6       7    e    a      e       e   a   a         e          sU Y C    G    B C W Y X C B G W G P     I C    I P D J8                     9           10  a   e       e s     a      e       aY G R C Q D R C J     G    I C B D Z G         11              12        13          14      s           a         a            a       aW P H J R D R Y D G     Y A G    X B P Z G     I G         15                   16         17       18  e   s a           a   e       a       a    e     eZ C B J G R D Q D I G I C     I G     H G Z  C     C  19      20          21        22      23  a   s             a s s        a   a    aA G D J    Y A    X G J J P    X G B G    G           24          25          26           27      s         a                e s   a           eW P H J R B Y W G P     H P      C J X G W P     I C 28               29                30    a     e s   a   a          e     a   e     eY A G     C J R G W G P      X C B A G H C H R C.
    Word two falls in line with my assumption = astronautas andword 1 could be PJ= os. Word 30 might be permanente.Other words appear uma, para, passo, espaco.

    Filling in the blanks we have the following:1                    2                  3o s    a s t r o n a u t a s    d e c l a r a r a mP J    G J R B P H G Y R G J    I C W Q G B G B G A3        4             5                 6       7q u e    a    r e c u p e r a c a o     d e    d o i sU Y C    G    B C W Y X C B G W G P     I C    I P D J8                     9           10s a t e l i t e s     a    d e r i v aY G R C Q D R C J     G    I C B D Z G         11              12        13          14c o n s t i t u i a     u m a    p r o v a     d aW P H J R D R Y D G     Y A G    X B P Z G     I G         15                   16         17       18v e r s a t i l i d a d e     d a     n a v  e     eZ C B J G R D Q D I G I C     I G     H G Z  C     C  19      20          21        22      23m a i s    u m    p a s s o    p a r a    aA G D J    Y A    X G J J P    X G B G    G           24          25          26           27c o n s t r u c a o     n o      e s p a c o     d eW P H J R B Y W G P     H P      C J X G W P     I C 28               29                30u m a     e s t a c a o      p e r m a n e n t eY A G     C J R G W G P      X C B A G H C H R C.
    Note the -cao endings

    REVIEW OF LECTURES 1-7

    We have studied the simple substitution case in detail. Wehave focused on the similarities between languages - especiallythe group frequencies. We have attempted to show a culturaluniversality for cryptography and the learning of languages.We have presented procedures to cryptanalyze most singlealphabet substitution systems, including the more difficultvariants. We have searched for historical significance as weproceeded in our cryptographic tour.

    WHAT'S NEXT?

    Two guest lecturers NORTH DECODER and ESSAYONS will presentmaterials on the Hill Cipher, and ENIGMA 95. I shall open upthe polyalphabetic substitution case. Remember, that the trickin solving a polyalphabetic substitution cipher is itsreduction to simpler terms, i.e. reduction to a series of oneor more mono-alphabetic sub-systems. The concept of periodicitywill be introduced. I will cross the lines and introducetransposition ciphers. The most famous Playfair that saved aU. S. Presidents life will be detailed. The resource sectionwill be improved again by about 100 solid references.

    OTHER STUFF

    By the way, our class as of this writing is 109! Four othershave requested access. I thank you all for your confidence andsupport. Those who wish to present a special cipher or to haveyour guest lecture included in this course need to contact mesoon, so that I can schedule them. If you want to construct afew problems (based on any material covered) for presentation inthe final "book", go for it. E-mail/snail mail them to me withcomplete solutions and sources. Again thank you for your trustand interest.

    HOMEWORK FROM LECTURE 6

    FRE-2. K2. (105) Another species. {sauvage,fp=ST]   MELODEP Q   N X B M H Q I   Q A B   C I Q   D K E X Q B Q    O QP' W M R R Q;  D K E X Q B Q   O Q U Q I Q E Q Q    M CT E X R X B X D Q ,   X P    Q A B    K   P' W M R R Q   N QV C Q   N W K B   O Q   U M C B B X Q E Q   Q A B    K CN W K B   A K C D K U Q.FRE-3. K2. (87) (jamais, A=b)  It's fun trying.    GUNG HOD G    X   Z   Q N J D P    M C J P U P   L S U   E' Z DZ D H U    Q J S E J S N P    U Q    E Z H Z D P    M J H -K N D P:   G Z   K U D I Q S N U ,   G Z   H S P D L S U,U Q   G U P   O Z H U P .    * R J I Q U I U G G U FRE-4.  PAT from [GIVI] page 13.and ff.   (130)Solve and recover key(s).YJXMG   XBXUF   JGECU   JEBZD   XAMNM   ZDFLG   FAFNJ   OFNDJGVJXE   FNNME   VRJZJ   KAFNB   FNZAG   NCUJE   BNRUX   OFNJGNNXKX   FELGF   BJRVF   NOFUI   FXAAF   GTFVR   FAFKU   FNBJENADXN   VMXUF  ITA-2.  K2.  (88) ( ne, han, con) Thirty days hath September.LABRONICUSI D S A I K   Q W    P L A I K   A L B S C M D S   P L AK E D W Z S,   U W O U A L    S    R S I I S C M D S .   Q WB S A I L I I L   P S   A ' S   O A L.   I O I I W    U Z WK Z I D W    A S    V K A    I D S A U I O A L.ITA-3.  K2. (117) (sulla, f=I). La frode necessaria. MICROPODG Z Q K E   A F S Z L   T K F Q A   Q S F N F   Q K G K QT G G Z P   Z Q F R A   T J Z E F   N S Z M T   Z J S A SZ R A P T   D A F F Q   K G K Z L   Z S S K E   O F J F QQ T J K R   A E Z F Q   Z S S Z H   F J S F M   T F G G KE O F L F   J Q Z G A   J X T S Z  J D. SPA-1.                                    BARKER Z K E P C   U K Y   T C Y D M S R    V C T P E R    AZ P Z N D Z K   G C T Y R Z K   R   N T D G R   Y C   V KK S T P Q D P E R   M K    T C Y G R Z Y P Q P M P E K EE C M    K S C Z S K E R    G R T    C M    U R U C Z S R.SPA-2. K2. (96) (deseo, f=R)  Musica.        D. STRASSET I Z    Q B J N A Z    K J K T F Z N    B P    L T B   B FK N A G B N    A G K T F P J    G T P A O Z F    M B FS J G H N B   R T B   T I   K T N Z G B I Q BB P K J I Q Z I B J     M P B B J   N A Q G A O J   M BM Z I Y Z N. SPA-3.  (122) (-ulado, MZ=qk)  Flight?           LIFER N S P Y K   I X P U A   K P Z D X   P S P E X   K R L K OK A X T S   P Q K D X   R K R R S   S I N K Y   K R L A RS D K T Q   L D L P X   K T A S Q   X S P X P   R S O S PR X J K R   K T O A S   T S P Q X   L S D O A   X I S A EC S D L R   S C P V D   L N L B A    X O C D K   R L. POR-2. K2 (96) (tenta; gj=NQ) Machine Age?    YO TAMBIEN E P E J T X D   U R T C   J Z X G C    V R J   D JX I N R S O C   H C D   T C V R P U C D   V R JZ J U D C T   J   H J D G X U M P C   H J   A X H XO X T J T   V R J   A J U A C    M C B J S X.*O.   *T R T M X I H   *Q X U J D  POR-3. K1. (nossos va-)  Letter to horseman?     ZYZZ U C U C G    V C J F D    E F W E O   C B G C V    S I H C LI T I W F    Y C V F U    H F W F T   L F R F B    C H W F CE S H I L    F G I C D    E G T I J   H C V G R    P C V C JF V D E F    W F H C V    L F V F H   J I S K I    X J I Z UI G V T I    V V I V B    C D E F G   H I V V C    I F Y K FR F T W F    V. 

    SOLUTIONS TO LECTURE 6 PROBLEMS

    Thanks to GRAPE JUICE for the straightforward SOLS.

    LAT-1 K2. (sallust)  Wars and Victors?     SCARLET     (105/17)FCDR JRBBQC OQCN TZUNBR, URPRMQC ZRHRMMQCR GRONDRMR.NDUNKRMR UQNSNO, RPNZC NHDZSF BNURMR, GRKFDN, UQCS  NUPFMROSRBNDP. *OZBBQOP                        [cum,  bdghj=JGHIE]
    Omne bellum sumi facile, ceterum aegerrume desinere. Inciperecuivis, etiam ignavo licere, deponi, cum victores velint.- Sallust
    a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y zZ J U G R T H I N E A B C D F K L M O P Q S V W X YK2 = JUGRTHINE
    After placing the very generous tips, the solution was a simplematter of filling in the key alphabet. Solution time about 5minutes.

    NOR-1.  Cosmology. (verden) (*qwx)    NIL VIRONUS  (109/22)IKPNH ERAMC KDAOA GPKMK NNKMK MEKOK MZLAGGKQPH EVKMM KGKOK GPDAO VFIIK GHKRF DOIFVFGNCF JPKRK MIKGN FEKGG KNCKP FDYKM PKAGN PKAG.K2 = FYSIKK LOVA
    Det som virkelig interesserer meg er ae inne ut om herrenegentlig hadde noe vagg da han skapte verden sa mennesket.Albert Einstein
    a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v y z aa ao aeF Y S I K L O V A B C D E G H J M N P Q R T U W X Z
    Letting e=K, there was only one position for VERDEN. This gavethe interesting pattern ERE??ERE at letter 18. Trying thepattern ABaCcaba in my Norwegian word list gave the wordINTERESSERER. This in turn gave ERTEINSTEIN at the end of thegram, which implied Albert Einstein. From that point on thesolution was a matter of filling in the key alphabet. Solutiontime about 1 hour.

    REFERENCES / RESOURCES

    [updated 3 February 1996]

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A classic article       by the greatest cryptanalyst.[FR1]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,       Military Cryptanalytics Part I - Volume 1, Aegean Park       Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.[FR2]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,       Military Cryptanalytics Part I - Volume 2, Aegean Park       Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.[FR3]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,       Military Cryptanalytics Part III, Aegean Park Press,       Laguna Hills, CA, 1995.[FR4]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,       Military Cryptanalytics Part IV,  Aegean Park Press,       Laguna Hills, CA, 1995.[FR5]  Friedman, William F. Military Cryptanalysis - Part I,       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1980.[FR6]  Friedman, William F. 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( A useful and well balanced book of       cryptographic resource materials. )[HOM1] Homophonic: A Multiple Substitution Number Cipher", S-       TUCK, The Cryptogram, DJ45, American Cryptogram       Association, 1945.[HOM2] Homophonic: Bilinear Substitution Cipher, Straddling,"       ISHCABIBEL, The Cryptogram, AS48, American Cryptogram       Association, 1948.[HOM3] Homophonic: Computer Column:"Homophonic Solving,"       PHOENIX, The Cryptogram, MA84, American Cryptogram       Association, 1984.[HOM4] Homophonic: Hocheck Cipher,", SI SI, The Cryptogram,       JA90, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.[HOM5] Homophonic: "Homophonic Checkerboard," GEMINATOR, The       Cryptogram, MA90, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.[HOM6] Homophonic: "Homophonic Number Cipher," (Novice Notes)       LEDGE, The Cryptogram, SO71, American Cryptogram       Association, 1971.[HUNG] Rip Van Winkel, "Hungarian," The Cryptogram, March -       April,  American Cryptogram Association, 1956.[IBM1] IBM Research Reports, Vol 7., No 4, IBM Research,       Yorktown Heights, N.Y., 1971.[INDE] PHOENIX, Index to the Cryptogram: 1932-1993, ACA, 1994.[ITAL] Italian - English Dictionary, compiled by Vittore E.       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English trans. by Warren T, McCready of the       University of Toronto, 1964[KOBL] Koblitz, Neal, " A Course in Number Theory and       Cryptography, 2nd Ed, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994.[KONH] Konheim, Alan G., "Cryptography -A Primer" , John Wiley,       1981, pp 212 ff.[KOTT] Kottack, Phillip Conrad, "Anthropology: The Exploration       Of Human Diversity," 6th ed., Mcgraw-Hill, Inc., New       York, N.Y.  1994.[KOZA] Kozaczuk, Dr. Wladyslaw,  "Enigma: How the German       Machine Cipher was Broken and How it Was Read by the       Allies in WWI", University Pub, 1984.[KULL] Kullback, Solomon, Statistical Methods in Cryptanalysis,       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, Ca. 1976[LAFF] Laffin, John, "Codes and Ciphers: Secret Writing Through       The Ages," Abelard-Schuman, London, 1973.[LAKE] Lakoff, R., "Language and the Womans Place," Harper &       Row, New York, 1975.[LANG] Langie, Andre, "Cryptography," translated from French       by J.C.H. 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Not only well       written, clear to understand but as authoritative as       they come! ][LEWI] Lewin, Ronald, 'Ultra goes to War', Hutchinson,       London 1978.[LEWY] Lewy, Guenter, "America In Vietnam", Oxford University       Press, New York, 1978.[LEVI] Levine, J.,  U.S. Cryptographic Patents 1861-1981,       Cryptologia, Terre Haute, In 1983.[LISI] Lisicki, Tadeusz, 'Dzialania Enigmy', Orzet Biaty,       London July-August, 1975; 'Enigma i Lacida',       Przeglad lacznosci, London 1974- 4; 'Pogromcy       Enigmy we Francji', Orzet Biaty, London, Sept.       1975.'[LYNC] Lynch, Frederick D., "Pattern Word List, Vol 1.,"       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.[LYSI] Lysing, Henry, aka John Leonard Nanovic, "Secret       Writing," David Kemp Co., NY 1936.[MAGN] Magne, Emile, Le plaisant Abbe de Boisrobert, Paris,       Mecure de France, 1909.[MANS] Mansfield, Louis C. 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(also available       through NSA Center for Cryptologic History)Text converted to HTML on June 18, 1998 by Joe Peschel.

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