Classical Cryptography Course,
Volumes I and II from Aegean Park Press

By Randy Nichols (LANAKI)
President of the American Cryptogram Association from 1994-1996.
Executive Vice President from 1992-1994

Table of Contents
  • Lesson 1
  • Lesson 2
  • Lesson 3
  • Lesson 4
  • Lesson 5
  • Lesson 6
  • Lesson 7
  • Lesson 8
  • Lesson 9
  • Lesson 10
  • Lesson 11
  • Lesson 12


    Jan. 13, 1996

    Revision 0

    Part II


    In Lecture 6, we continue our review of materials related tociphers created in languages other than English. In order toaugment PHOENIX's soon to be published ACA Xenocrypt Handbook,we will focus on six diverse systems: Arabic, Russian, Chinese,Latin, Norwegian, and Hungarian. Each offers a uniqueperspective in deciphering communications and supports thecultural universal concept presented in Lecture 5.

    Lecture 7 will give practical language data for Xenocryptscommonly published in the Cryptogram - French, Italian,Spanish, Portuguese. [I will not cover either Esperantoor Interlinguia. I consider both as useful as advanced Hittitein modern communications.]


    I have transmitted to the Crypto Drop Box word translationsoftware for Russian, Spanish, German, Danish and Portuguese.Single use license is granted. Also, I have sent a Russiantutorial program to NORTH DECODER to put on the Crypto Drop.


    A colleague of mine in Sweden sent me an interesting reminderof the historical foundations of cryptology. He suggested thatI include in one of my lectures a discussion of Dr. Ibrahim A.Al-Kadi's outstanding 1990 paper to the Swedish Royal Instituteof Technology in Stockholm regarding the Arabic contributionsto cryptology.

    Dr. Al-Kadi reported on the Arabic scientist by the name of AbuYusuf Yaqub ibn Is-haq ibn as Sabbah ibn 'omran ibn Ismail Al-Kindi, who authored a book on cryptology the "Risalah fiIstikhraj al-Mu'amma" (Manuscript for the DecipheringCryptographic Messages) circa 750 AD. Al-Kindi introducedcryptanalysis techniques, classification of ciphers, ArabicPhonetics and Syntax and most importantly described the use ofseveral statistical techniques for cryptanalysis. [This bookapparently antedates other cryptology references by 300 years.][It also predates writings on probability and statistics byPascal and Fermat by nearly 800 years.]

    Dr. Al-Kadi also reported on the mathematical writings of Al-Khwarizmi (780-847) who introduced common technical terms suchas 'zero', 'cipher', 'algorithm', 'algebra' and 'Arabicnumerals.' The decimal number system and the concept of zerowere originally developed in India.

    The Arabs translated in the early ninth century, Brahmagupta's"Siddharta" from Sanscrit into Arabic. The new numerals werequickly adopted through-out the Islamic empire from China toSpain. Translations of Al-Khwarizmi's book on arithmetic byRobert of Chester, John of Halifax and the Italian Leonardo ofPisa, aka Fibonacci strongly advocated the use of Arabicnumerals over the previous Roman Standard Numerals(I,V,X,C,D,M).

    The Roman system was very cumbersome because there was noconcept of zero or (empty space). The concept of zero which weall think of as natural was just the opposite in medievalEurope. In Sanscrit, the zero was called "sunya" or "empty".The Arabs translated the Indian into the Arabic equivalent"sifr". Europeans adopted the concept and symbol but not name,but transformed it into Latin equivalent "cifra" and"cephirium" {Fibonnaci did this}. The Italian equivalent ofthese words "zefiro", "zefro" and "zevero". The latter wasshortened to "Zero".

    The French formed the word "chiffre" and conceded the Italianword "zero". The English used "zero" and "Cipher" from theword ciphering as a means of computing. The Germans used thewords "ziffer" and "chiffer".

    The concept of zero or sifr or cipher was so confusing andambiguous to common Europeans that in arguments people wouldsay "talk clearly and not so far fetched as a cipher". Ciphercame to mean concealment of clear messages or simplyencryption. Dr. Al-Kadi concluded that the Arabic word sifr,for the digit zero, developed into the European technical termfor encryption. [KADI], [ALKA], [MRAY], [YOUS], [BADE] ,[NIC7]


    Reference [DAVI] gives one of the better breakdowns of themodern Russian Alphabet (Soviet, post 1918) for solving RussianCryptograms in "The Cryptogram".

    Friedman presents detailed Russian cryptographic data inVolume 2 of his Military Cryptanalytics series. [FR2]

    A prime difficulty for English speaking students of Russian isthe scarcity of linguistic cognates in the two languages.Russian is more complex than other romantic languages whichhave many common word derivatives. The highly inflectedRussian grammar aids rather than hinders the cryptographer bysupplying him with valuable tools for decrypting.

    My keyboard and supporting software does not permit acomfortable translation of the Cyrillic, so I refer you to theSeptember-October 1976 Cryptogram for a survey of Russianand several Xenocrypt examples.



    Radio communications can be heard which vary in frequency frombelow the broadcast band, to almost the upper edge of the radiospectrum (Ku-band satellite communications.)Common bands are:

    Whereas, VHF and UHF frequency ranges are occupied by cellularphones, police, fire and government communications, the bulk ofHF region is devoted to COMINT signals. You should be able tohear traffic from all over the globe, rather than the 50-75mile limit on the VHF and UHF bands. Three types of HF radiocommunications may be heard/intercepted: continuous wave(CW/Morse Code), single side band (SSB), and radio teletype(RTTY). The Cubans seem to favor the latter form ofcommunication, especially from their revitalized center atLourdes.

    Tom Roach [ROAC] has been monitoring Russian messages for sometime. He uses a Watkins-Johnson HF-1000 receiver, a Rhombicantenna, a Singer MT-5 Spectrum Analyzer, a Universal M-7000decoder ( allows viewing the Russian in its native Cyrillicalphabet) a Sony TCD-07 recorder, and Hitachi V-302FOscilloscope with X/Y tuning capability for RTTYcommunications.

    [ROAC] suggests that the best hunting grounds for Russian RTTYtraffic are:

    [ROAC] provides the reader with common abbreviations usedin Russian RTTY and Morse traffic. His book describes thedelicate art (and guess work required) in traffic analysis ofRussian Kriptogramma messages between ship to shore.

    Roach has identified several types of Russian messages:

    Other types of messages [ROAC] identified DISP/1 to reportdisposition of ships, PAGODA messages for weather reports,MORE messages to report administrative and sea conditions,Personal Itinerary, Fuel related, 10 slash, PARTI messages todiscuss status of ship's holds and bunkers.


    Russian achievements in the art of cryptography rank first rateto say the least. Three of my favorite cipher Russian systemsare: 1) Nihilist, 2) VIC - Disruption (aka straddling bipartitemonoalphabetic substitution super-enciphered by modified doubletransposition) and 3) the One-Time Pad. Each of these systemsintroduced tactical advantages for adverse communication andhad limited disadvantages for their service.


    For some reason, Russian prisoners were not allowed computersin their cells. Inmates were forbidden to talk, and to outwittheir jailers they invented a "knock" system to indicate therows and columns of a simple checkerboard (Polybius square at5x5 for English or 6x6 for 35 Russian letters). For ex:

                          1  2  3  4  5                   1  U  N  Ij T  E                   2  D  S  A  O  F      KW=United States Of                   3  M  R  C  B  G          America                   4  H  K  L  P  Q      i/j = same cell                   5  V  W  X  Y  Z      repeats omittedPT: g o t   a   c i g a r e t t e ?CT: 35 24 14 23 33   13 35 23 32 15    14 14 15
    Prisoners memorized the proper numbers and "talked" at about10-15 words per minute. One of the advantages was that itafforded communication by a great variety of media - anythingthat could be dotted, knotted, pierced, flashed or indicatenumerals in any way could be used. The innocuous letter wasalways suspicious. [KAH1]

    Cipher text letters were indicated by the number of letterswritten together; breaks in count by spaces in handwriting;upstrokes, downstrokes, thumbnail prints, all subtly used tobootleg secrets in and out of prisons. The system wasuniversal in penal institutions. American POW's used it inVietnam. [LEWY], [SOLZ]

    Transposition of the KW provided a further mixed alphabet:

                         B L A C K S M I T H                     D E F G N O P Q R U                     V W X Y Z taken off by columns:B D V L E W A F X C G Y K N Z S O M P I Q T R H UThe Polybius square would be:                      1  2  3  4  5                   1  B  D  V  L  E                   2  W  A  F  X  C                   3  G  Y  K  N  Z                   4  S  O  M  P  I                   5  Q  T  R  H  U
    The Nihilists, so named for their opposition to the czaristregime, added a repeating numerical KW . Making the cipher aperiodic similar to the Vigenere but with additionalweaknesses.

    Let KW = ARISE     22 53 45 41 15PT:   bomb winter palaceNT:   11 42 43 11 21 45 34 52 15 53 44 22 14 22 25 15Key:  22 53 45 41 15 22 53 45 41 15 22 53 45 41 15 22CT:   33 97 88 52 36   67 87 97 56 68   66 75 59 63 40   37or with bifurcation:      33978  85236  67879  75668  66755  96340  37774            nulls=774


    A simpler form of the Nihilist was in double transposition.The plain-text was written in by rows (or diagonals); a keywordswitched the rows; a same or different keyword switched thecolumns, and the resulting cipher text was removed by columnsor by one of forty (40) or more routes out of the square.

    ex:    KW = SCOTIA   or  524631PT:  let us hear from you at once concerning jewels xxxx   Transpose by Columns                Transpose by Rows    S  C  O  T  I  A    5  2  4  6  3  1                       1  2  3  4  5  61   S  E  U  H  T  L  (let us h)      S 5  E  U  J  W  T  O2   R  A  F  O  R  E                  C 2  R  A  F  O  R  E3   A  Y  U  T  O  M                  O 4  A  N  E  B  C  O4   A  N  E  B  C  O                  T 6  X  L  X  X  S  E5   E  U  J  W  T  O                  I 3  A  Y  U  T  O  M6   X  L  X  X  S  E                  A 1  S  E  U  H  T  L
    X= bad choice for nulls

    The resulting cryptogram:

    E U J W T   O R A F O   R E A N E    B C O X L   X X S E AY U T O M   S E U H T    L.
    (message length and 5th group are entries to solution)

    Clues to cryptanalysis of the Nihilist systems werereconstructing the routes, evenness of distribution of vowels,period determination and digram/trigram frequency in ciphertext. The USA Army for many years used a similar system.Reference [COUR] discusses the U.S. Army Double TranspositionCipher in detail.


    The Vic-Disruption Cipher brought the old Nihilist Substitutionto a peak of perfection. It merged the straddling checkerboardwith the one-time key. It increased the efficiency of thecheckerboard by specifically giving the high frequency letters(O,S,N,E,A; P,G ) the single digits (along with two lowfrequency letters). The seven letters: 'snegopa' compriseabout 40% of normal Russian text. Let me focus on interestingelements.


    The VIC algorithm is described as follows:
    The plain text is encoded by a Substitution Table (ST). Theintermediate cipher text [ICT] is then passed through two (2)transposition tables (TT1 and TT2), each performing a differenttransposition on the ICT.

    TT1 performs a simple columnar transposition: the ICT is placedin TT1 by rows and removed by columns in the order of TT1'scolumnar key and transcribed into TT2.

    TT2 is vertically partitioned into Disruption , or D areas.These partitions are formed by diagonals extending down thetable to the right boundary in columnar key order. The first Darea begins under column keynumber 1 and extends down to theright border of TT2. A row is skipped. The second D areastarts under keynumber 2. The process continues for the entirekey. The number of rows in TT2 .ne. TT1 and is calculated bydividing the number of cipher text input digits by the width ofthe table.

    The ICT from TT1 is inscribed into TT2 horizontally from leftto right skipping the D areas. When all the non D area isfilled , then the D areas are filled in the same way. Thecipher text is removed by column per key order without regardto the D areas.


    The VIC system used four memorized keys. Key 1 - the date ofWWII victory over Japan - 3/9/1945; Key 2 - the sequence of 5numbers like pi - 3.1415; Key 3 - the first 20 letters of the"Lone Accordion", or famous Russian song/poem, and Key 4 - theagent number, say 7. Key 1 was changed regularly. Key 4 waschanged irregularly.


    The keys were used to generate the keys for transposition andthe coordinates for a checkerboard for substitution through acomplex LRE (Left to right enumeration) logic. The processinjected an arbitrary 5 number group into the cipher text whichstrongly influenced the end result. This group changed frommessage to message, so the enciphering keys (and cipher text)would bear no exploitable relationship to each other. Not onlydid TT1 and TT2 keys differ but also the widths of the blocksdid as well.

    The coordinates kept changing. The D areas prevented theanalyst from back derivation of the first TT1. The D areasincreased the difficulty of finding the pattern and thestraddling effect on the checkerboard increased the difficultyof frequency counts. Although not impossible to break, inpractice a tough monkey indeed. The FBI failed for four yearsto solve it.


    All arithmetic was done modulo 10, without carrying orborrowing.

    An English ST table might look like this:

                   4  9  1  6  0  8  5  2  3  7               R  E  A  S  O  N  b            2  B  C  D  F  G  H  J  K  L  M            3  P  Q  I  U  V  W  X  T  Z  1            7  3  5  7  9  .  ,  b  $  %  -
    b = space character

    top line are among most frequent English letters similar to'SNEGOPAD' in Russian.

    Ambiguity in decipherment is reduced because the last threeslots in the first row are empty and the first coordinate ofthe two coordinate characters is unique.

    [VOGE] gives a detailed look at the key generation recursionmathematics for this cipher. It describes the LRE(left to right enumeration) process in nauseating detail.

    The TT1 and TT2 are built up on the recursion sequenceX(i+5) = X(i) + X(i+1) for i = 1,5 using mod 10 math. Key 1was used to insert at end of message (5th unit in thisexample). Key 1 was also the initial point for a series ofmanipulations with Key 2,3,and 4.


    Hayhanen incorporated some nasty refinements. Beforeencipherment, the plain text was bifurcated and the two halvesswitched so that the standard beginnings and endings could notbe identified. The ST contained a 'message starts' character.The ST was extended to ASCII characters. The VIC enciphermentconsisted of one round. After 1970, with the advent ofprogrammable hand calculators, a multiple round version wasproduced.


    Consisting of simple enough elements, this cipher is one toughmonkey.

    The complication in substitution was the straddling device onthe checkerboard. The irregular alternating of coordinates oftwo different lengths makes it harder for cryptanalysis bydividing the list into proper pairs and singletons.

    The complication in the transposition was the Disruption areas.D areas blocked the reconstruction of the first tableau. Acorrect sorting of the columns is forestalled by the D areas.The cipher text is only 62% increased over plain text becauseof the high frequency letters in the first row of the ST.


    The One-Time Pad was covered in LECTURE 3 and we are remindedthat it is truly an unbreakable cipher system. There are manydescriptions of this cipher. Bruce Schneier's discussions arequite relevant. [SCHN] , [SCH2]


    The One-Time Pad has a drawback - the quantities of fresh keyrequired. For military messages in the field (a fluidsituation) a practical limit is reached. It is impossible toproduce and distribute sufficient fresh key to the units.During WWII, the US Army's European theater HQs transmitted,even before the Normandy invasion, 2 million five (5) lettercode groups a day! It would have therefore consumed 10 millionletters of key every 24 hours - the equivalent of a shelf of 20average books. [SCHN]


    The real issue for the One-Time Pad, is that the keys must betruly random. Attacks against the One-Time Pad must beagainst the method used to generate the key itself. Pseudo-random number generators don't count; often they have nonrandomproperties. Reference [SCHN] Chapter 15, discusses in detailrandom sequence generators and stream cipher. [SCHN], [KAHN],[RHEE]



    Dr. August suggests that the Four Corner System and the ChinesePhonetic Alphabet System lend themselves to manualcryptographic treatment. His treatment of these two systemsis easier to understand than some military texts on thesubject. [AUG1]
                                    3                           Xj = U  v1         eq 1                               1-3
    This union is called an asymmetric code.

    The Four Corner System encodes characters into several genericshapes. Each character is broken into four (4) quadrants, andassigned a digit to the generic shape that best corresponds tothe actual shape.

    The Chinese Phonetic Alphabet is Pinyin with symbols instead ofEnglish letters. Each symbol corresponds to one of 37 orderedphonetic sounds. The 21 initial, 3 medial and 13 finals are aunique ordered set - a true alphabet.

    The strength of encryption of Chinese is dependent on thespecific Chinese encoding character schemes. Three cases are:


    A) Phonetic Alphabet:

    12.6   7   5.7  4.8     4.2   3.8   3.4    3   2.9 2.8 2.4  2.2 I     U    D   ENG/E   an/en  SH   X/ZH   J/u  G   O   ao   H2.1   2           1.9  1.8   1.6    1.4  1.3   1.2  1.1ang   a/b/ai/B/z   ei   Q    ou/M    ie   L     F    R0.8   0.7  0.6    0.3  0.1 t    n/c   ch    k/s   p/elInitials: sh, dMedials:  iFinals:  e, en, eng, in, un, ing, ongPhi for monalphabetic substitution = 0.051        (random text = 0.027)Common Digraphs:        ji, ieng, ueng, gu, de, ian, iie, li, ien,       qi, xi, uo, izh, zu, shi
    Positional Limitations:
           1.  Initials follow a medial or final.       2.  Finals follow an initial or medial.       3.  [zh, ch, sh ] do not combine with i or u'.       4.  [ j, q, x ]  do not combine with  a or e  finals.       5.  qa, qan  = no but quan, qian, qia = yes       6.  no double phonetics in a single codeword.       7.  medials double frequently.       8.  13 limits on combinations within a codeword.
    Approximately 63% of characters require 2 phonetic symbols.About 1/3 were three long, and about 4% are one symbol.

    Tone indicator digits were about 22--23% likely.

    B) Four Corner

    Digital frequencies:  0  =  .30                      1  =  .14                      2  =  .15                      3  =  .07                      4  =  .10                      5  =  .03                      6  =  .07                      7  =  .08                      8  =  .04                      9  =  .02
    Phi value = 0.160 compared to random text value of 0.100

    Dr. August presents a table of digraphs. [AUG2] Combinationsof Xn - Ym where n= 0-9 and m=0,1,2,3,4,7 showed highestfrequencies of text encoded with 5 digit scheme.


    In Chinese there is more dependence between encoding andenciphering operations than in English. The choice of theencoding system influences the type of enciphering operations.Dr. August provides solved examples of the above systems.[AUG2]


    China appears to have had a much delayed entry into the cipherbusiness. Partially because so many Chinese did not read orwrite, and partially because the language was so complex,Chinese cryptography was limited until the 19 century. Butthere were seeds.

    The Chinese strategist Sun Tzu (500 b.c.) recommended a truebut small code, which limited the plaintext to 40 elementsand assigned them to the first 40 characters of a poem, forminga substitution table. Richard Deacon describes a method ofcode encryption which the secret society Triads used in theearly 1800's. [DEAC] The Tong's in San Francisco used thesame system. This method limited the plaintext space and basedcodewords on multiples of three.

    The "Inner Ring" techniques taught to Sa Bu Nim's (teachers)by the masters of Korean Tae Kwon Do (which came from theAncient Tae Kwan and before that Kung Fu) were passed on bymeans of codeword transposition ciphers. [CHOI] In 1985, SunYat-Sen used codes to transmit information by telegraph.[TUKK]) During WWII, Herbert Yardley taught Kuomintangsoldiers to cryptanalyze Japanese ciphers. However, theJapanese had already outpaced the Chinese in cryptanalyticalabilities.

    Japan's Chuo tokujobu (Central Bureau Of Signal Intelligence)was responsible for crypto-communication and signalintelligence, including cryptanalysis, translation,interception, and direction finding against the Soviet Union,China and Britain. It began operations in 1921. [YUKI],[YAR1]

    In May 1928, the Angohan (Codes and Ciphers Office) obtainedexcellent results in intercepting and decoding Chinese codesduring the Sino-Japanese clash at Tsinan between ChiangKaishek's Northern Expeditionary Army and the IJA (ImperialJapanese Army). [FUMI]

    The warlord Chang Tso-lin was murdered in June 1928. Angohansucceeded in decoding "Young Marshal" Chang Hsueh-liang'ssecret communications and made a substantial contribution tothe understanding of the warlord politics of Manchuria. [SANB]

    The Anjohan not only mastered the basics of Chinese codes andciphers but also broke the Nanking Government and the ChineseLegation codes in Tokyo. [YOKO]

    The Chinese codes in 1935 were called "Mingma". They werebasically made up of four digit numbers. The Chinese did notencode the name of either the sender or receiver, nor the dateor the time of the message. The China Garrison Army'sTokujohan office was able to disclose the composition,strength, and activities of Chiang Kai-shek's branch armies,such as those led by Sung Che-yuan and Chang Hseuh-liang. Itwas not able to decode the Chinese Communist or Air Forcemessages. [HIDE]

    By the time of the 1937 Sino-Japanese War, Japanesecryptanalytical experts had been able to greatly expand theirknowledge of the Chinese system of codes and ciphers, as wellas improve their decoding skills. About 80% of what wasintercepted was decoded. This included military and diplomaticcodes but not the Communist code messages. [EIIC]

    Chinese Nationalists upgraded their Mingma codes in 1938. Theyadopted a different system, called tokushu daihon (special codebook) in Japanese which complicated by mixing compound words.By October, 1940, Chiang Kai-shek's main forces were using arepeating key system. This stumped the Japanese cryptanalystsfor a short time, then they returned to a 75% decoding levelduring the war. They continued to make great contributions tomajor military operations in China. [HIDE]

    The Japanese broke the Kuomintang codes during the ChungyuangOperation in the Southern Shansi or Chungt'iao MountainCampaign. [CHUN] In February 1941, significant penetrationof Communist signal traffic was obtained. [YOKO]

    The tokujo operations against the North China Area Army and theChinese Communist codes was tragic failure. [HISA] The IJA'sChina experts held a highly negative image towards the Chinese.

    This may have prejudiced their attitude towards intelligenceestimates of China and the Chinese which in turn adverselyaffected their operational (crypto-intelligence) thinking onChina in general. [THEO]

    When the Sian mutiny broke out and Chiang Kai-shek waskidnapped in December 1936, Major General Isogai (IJA's leadingexpert in COMINT for China) toasted (more like roasted) thedemise of Chiang. Colonel Kanji Ishiwara (Japan's chiefmilitary strategist) deplored the incident because he feltChina was on the brink of unity because of Chiang Kai-shek'sefforts. He considered the ability to read Chiang's codes justa matter of doing the business of war. [SHIN]


    BRASSPOUNDER gives us a good introduction to Latin inReference [LATI]. Until modern times Latin was a dominantlanguage in schools, churches, and state in Western Europe.Professionals use Latin to confuse the general populace.Latin is closely related to all of the Romance languages.

    The Latin alphabet is the same as the English-languagealphabet, except that it has no equivalents for K, W, J, or U.These have crept into current usage for their phonetic value.The J replaced I as in hic jacet instead of the classical hiciacet. The letter W has no equivalent. The letter U was theGreek Y, and in classical times was written as a U. C is nowused to form the hard sound as in CEL instead of KEL. A doubleUU approximated a W. Latin therefore is a 25 letter alphabet.

    The order of frequency according to Kluber, reduced topercentages, taken from reference [TRAI]:

     I  -  10.1        M -   3.4      V  -   0.7E  -  9.2         C -   3.3      X  -   0.6U  -  7.4         P -   3.0      H  -   0.5T  -  7.2         L -   2.1      J  -   0A  -  7.2         D -   1.7      K  -   0S  -  6.8         G -   1.4      Y  -   0R  -  6.8         Q -   1.3      Z  -   0N  -  6.0         B -   1.2O  -  4.4         F -   0.9Vowels: I E U A OConsonants:  T S R N M C P L D Q B F V X HInitials: S I A P E Q C V M D N F H R T U L O G JFinals: S E T M A I O N D R L C UDoubled Letters: S L M P T C N R U ZVowel Combinations:AE AU AI ; EA EI EO ; IA IO IE IAE ; OA OE OI OAE OIA ;UA UE UI UO UU UAE UIA UIUConsonant combinations:NT ST ND SP PB CT SG NS NP LTFrequent reversals:UM EN ER NT TI TE ON RT RE ES IS ME IT TA US SE IC TUST IE PE CI RUDigraph endings:IS UM US AM AE TA NT EN RE OS AS UE ES RA AT IT ET IA IOOB ST SE TE RI OR UR ER NI RI UI NO EL DI PE NA VA NS ED IN NESA MO SI SO ROTrigraph word endings:ERE QUE UNT RIS RUS IUM LIS LUM TIS UAM UOD NTA ARE IAMNIS RAT NEM ROS TAS TES TIO ANT ATA CAE CUM ENT ITA IUS LAE NAMNES NIA RUM URA VIS TEM TAE TUSFavorite letter positions:A   H 2H 2E                   N             2E EB   H                         O             2H 2EC   H                         P             HD   H E                       Q             H 2HE   H 2H E                    R             2H 2EF   H                         S             E HG   E H                       T             E 2E HH   2H E H                    U             2H 2EI   3E 2E 2H                  V             HJ   H                         W (rare)      HK   E                         X             2H 2EL   2E 2H                     Y             E 2HM   H                         Z             2E E HH=head, first letter, 2H = second letter, E=last letter,2E= next to last letterCommon short words:IN ET AD SI PER UBI SED UNA VIA HIC PRO CUM QUI QUO QUODIPSE ATQUE QUARE QUIDEMPattern words:NON BENE FERE QUISQUE
      Vowel percentage: 44%Vowel / consonant ratio: 8/10Average word length: 7
                           Latin Bigram TableBasis 10,000 letters and spaces from Reference [ALBE]                      Second Letter        A   E   I   O   U   B   C   D   F   G   H   K     - 156 145 146 36  60  11  99  65  39   7  35   4  A 113     77  8      20  42  15  58       6  E 197 27      7   7   1   5  26  18   4  11   1  I 89  43  12  6  59  68  51  60  34  12  26   4  O 61  1   3              10  37  19   1   2  U  8  73  61  50 22   2  17   2  11  B 15  12  26  33  3  22  C 29  49  28  31 68   3       4               3F D 53  16  61  87  9  17           3       1i F 3   7   9   23 11   9               5r G 2   5   18  14  4  10                   1s H     23  3   14  8   4t K 4                   8  L 10  46  39  106 10  13          2       1L M 248 28  33  28  22  23  1e N 57  48  49  59  40  38      33 39   4   19t P 2   12  34  12  43  14                      1t Q 4                  167e R 87  96  76  101 30  56  4    6  7   1    2  1r S 276 14  64  83  30  47      34  1   2  T 191 96  125 142 20  91                      6  V 3   7   42  24  27   1  X 28  1   2    7               2  Y                                     5  Z  1
    L M N P Q R S T V X Y Z 53 36 79 113 92 36 151 46 68 3 1 A 63 89 62 12 4 59 45 81 4 2 E 18 78 85 11 21 175 84 93 3 35 I 25 49 143 24 9 10 137 113 3 4 O 13 27 134 6 4 65 46 13 5 2 U 37 119 63 9 60 105 70 1 B 1 4 5 C 2 24 40 5 D 2 1 1 1 2 2 F 1 12 G 1 13 8 H K L 33 12 M 7 10 13 5 2 N 4 3 56 136 10 P 17 3 42 15 11 Q R 1 6 1 3 2 2 9 26 3 1 S 7 5 11 39 72 3 7 T 19 23 35 V X 6 1 Y Z


    Norwegian is a beautiful language which consists of two forms,Bokmal (Book Language) and Nynorsk. Book language is thegenerally read form. Norwegian is similar to English with theaddition of three vowels AE, 0, A'. Foreign consonant lettersare C, Q, W, X and Z. Based on 5153 letters, a frequencyanalysis reduced to 100 letters is:
     16  8   7  6   5    4     2        1     -      0E  RNS  T  AI  LDO  GKM  UVFHPA'  JB0  Y AE C  WXZQ
    Average word length - 4.77 letters. Compound words are long.

    IC = .0647

    Vowels A, E I O - 33%

    Consonants D L N R S T - 41% of letters

    One- Letter Words:I 81%    A' 16%   A 2%  O A AE 0  1%Two letter words:OG 23%  ER 14%   EN 10%  AV /DE  9%  ET PA' AT FA' SA'DA  NA'  OM  VI  JO  SA  JA  MA'  SE  TO  UT  VEThree letter words:OPP 38%  ENN 23%  INN 15%  OSS 15%  ALL 8%Four letter words: OSGA' 15%   BARE 12%    ALLE 9%   FOLK 9%  HVEM  SINESTOR  GATE  GODT  HVIS  IDAG  LAND  MENS   MIDTDoubles:LL  KK  NN  TT  MM  SS  PP  GG  RR  DD  FFDigraphs:EN  ER  DE  ET  TE  ST  NE  OR  RE  KE  AN  ME  SE  SKReversals:EN  ER  DE  ET  ES  EL  LI  AV  GEInitials:S  FM  D  HAENT  BKV  GI  JLP  RU  A0Finals:E  RT  N  G  S  KM  A A'DLV  IO  BPYAE  FHU0
    Phoenix's soon to be published ACA Xenocrypt Handbookgives further data on digraphs and trigraphs representing lessthan 2% of totals.


    Hungarian (aka Magyar) is related to Finnish and Estonian.Hungarian has 38 sounds based on a Latin alphabet. Reference[HUNG] shows the full alphabet as a combination of letters.There is no Q, W, or X in Hungarian. Only 23 Latin letters areused. Reference [HUNG] also gives Xenocrypt examples.

    Hungarian has four special characteristics:

    Per cent letter frequencies based on 10,001 letters:
    E   -  16.04      K  -  4.47         D  -   1.93A   -  12.55      I  -  4.29         B  -   1.78T   -   8.35      M  -  4.11         H  -   1.42O   -   6.56      R  -  3.48         J  -   0.99S   -   6.56      G  -  3.16         F  -   0.94L   -   5.66      U  -  2.33         C  -   0.52N   -   5.49      Y  -  2.03         P  -   0.52Z   -   4.79      V  -  1.94Doubles (in 10,001 letter count):TT   104          BB   25         RR  10SS    42          KK   24         II   9LL    35          NN   22         GG   7AA    31          ZZ   11EE    27          MM   11Most frequent bigrams:OE    229        AL   126         SA   94EL    225        AS   123         KA   91TA    219        LE   118         ZA   90SZ    207        NE   110         LA   89ES    201        UE   110         ZO   88EN    185        EM   110         AK   87EG    155        GY   108         KE   87ET    151        AZ   101         AM   86TE    149        EK    97         KO   86AN    145        LA    96         EZ   80AT    136        AR    95         MA   79ER    133        SE    95         RE   79ME    127        TO    95Initials:V E M K S A H  T F N L B I O J C U P R G DFinals:T N K E A S I  M L G Y Z R D O  B U P CGroups: Vowels  A E I O U    41.77 % LNRST                29.54 JKQYZ                9.93 EATOS                50.06 EATOSLNZK            70.47 HJFCP                 4.39Simple words based on a count of 1,000 words:ES   -  and (before vowels)   96AZ   -  that  20EGY  -  one   14S    -  and   11MEG  -         6EL   -  away   5TE   -  thou   5HA   -  if     4ITT  -  here   3A    -  one    68EZ   -  this   17NEM  -  no     6                 Hungarian Bigram TableBasis 10,000 letters and spaces from Reference [HUNG]                      Second Letter        A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K  A    31  41   4  22  15  22  56  55  33  28  87  B    57  25          52           1   3   1  C     6               3               5  D    28   1   1   3  48   3       3  15       1  E    28  26   3  47  27  21 155  19  19  21  97  F     7              21   3          25  G    40   9          46   4   7  11  13   3   6F H    67              21              15i I    34   7    6  16  9   1  26   2   9   5  59r J    35   1        6 16                   3   1s K    91   6    3   1 87   6   4   2  38   1  24t L    96   5    3  7 118   7   6   4  15  10  18  M    79  18   5   1 127   5       9  58   5   3L N    59   7   8  40 110   7   9   2  18   1  38e O     3  11   1  13 229   1  25   2   1      51t P     7              16               3    3  3t R    50   1  13  10  79   5   6   1  19   1  10e S    94   3   1   5  95   5   1   8  18   5  22r T   219  10   3   3 149   1   6  14  59   5  19  U     4   1      12 110   1   9   2   4   4   1  V    89   5          61              13  Y    41   1   1   1  43   1       5  18       2  Z    90           6 122   1   6   2  28   3   3
    L M N O P R S T U V Y Z A 126 86 145 1 18 95 123 136 3 27 101 B 5 3 3 14 5 5 1 3 C 3 1 34 D 1 9 1 41 3 1 15 13 6 E 225 110 185 1 18 133 201 151 37 80 F 18 19 1 G 4 7 1 15 7 6 6 7 12 108 4 H 1 37 1 I 18 7 56 1 7 9 71 35 10 28 13 J 1 22 3 7 1 3 K 4 21 6 86 9 9 14 28 4 L 35 31 15 57 4 6 7 73 6 13 24 6 M 6 11 7 35 2 17 9 14 8 2 N 6 11 22 22 3 19 72 11 12 57 15 O 65 33 62 1 1 41 37 49 4 26 P 1 11 1 2 2 2 1 R 9 11 4 42 10 18 41 16 S 4 18 13 29 4 42 43 15 14 10 207 T 22 42 6 95 1 4 20 104 37 12 4 U 19 3 12 2 9 7 24 3 6 V 21 2 3 Y 6 15 3 14 2 2 16 6 23 3 Z 11 2 6 88 3 18 49 21 9 11


    Ger-3. Kalenderblatt August. K2 (Sonne) BRASSPOUNDER
    Im August steht die Sonne in der Naehe des Sirius, desHundsterns daher die "Hundstages," die weder Mensch nochTiere moegen.
     PT: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y zCT: F G J K M N O P Q R S U V W X Y Z L I C H T A B D E
    After placing the crib at the 5th word, der, dess, and diewere immediately identified.

    Ger-4. Ungerechtes Schicksal. Eng. K4 GEMINATOR

    Kw's = question /unfairStudent besteht Pruefung zum zweiten mal nicht wieso fragt derFreund Schicksalsschlag das selbe zimmer der selbe Professordie selben fragen.PT: z q u e s t i o n a b c d f g h j k l m p r v w x yCT: U N F A I R B C D E G H J K L M O P Q S T V W X Y ZIRFJA   DRGAI   RAMRT   VFAKF   DLUFS   UXABR   ADSEQDBHMR   XBAIC   KVELR   JAVKV   AFDJI   HMBHP   IEQIIHMQEL   JEIIA   QGAUB   SSAVJ   AVIAQ   GATVC   KAIICVJBAI   AQGAD   KVELA   D.   hints: (zum zw-;  zimm-)
    The three part crib can only be located in one position. Afirst guess of ZIMMER gives der, die, and zweit. A guess ofFREUND yields much of the in the rest of the text.Schicksalsschlag can be found in the dictionary.Fre-1.
    MON NOM  square looks like this:       F  G  H  I  J  K    A  N  E  Z  P  I  L    B  S  O  T  H  U  M    C  B  A  R  C  D  F    D  G  J  K  Q  V  W    E  X  Y  -  -  -  -
    Split the cipher text after message group 13. Message reads:Que Noel vous soit des plus agreables et l'an nouve aplein dedesirs accomplis.


    Lat-1  K2. (105) (sallust)  Wars and Victors?        SCARLETF C D R    J R B B Q C    O Q C N    T Z U N B R,U R P R M Q C    Z R H R M M Q C R    G R O N D R M R.N D U N K R M R   U Q N S N O,   R P N Z C   N H D Z S FB N U R M R ,   G R K F D N ,   U Q C    S N U P F M R OS R B N D P.    * O Z B B Q O P   [cum,  bdghj=JGHIE]Nor-1.  K2  Cosmology.  (*qwx, verden)    NIL VIRONUSI K P N H   E R A M C   K D A O A   G P K M K   N N K M KM E K O K   M Z L A G   G K Q P H   E V K M M   K G K O KG P D A O   V F I I K   G H K R F   D O I F V   F G N C FJ P K R K   M I K G N   F E K G G   K N C K P   F D Y K MP K A G N   P K A G.


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Naval Institute, 1891.[NIC1] Nichols, Randall K., "Xeno Data on 10 Different       Languages," ACA-L, August 18, 1995.[NIC2] Nichols, Randall K., "Chinese Cryptography Parts 1-3,"       ACA-L, August 24, 1995.[NIC3] Nichols, Randall K., "German Reduction Ciphers Parts       1-4," ACA-L, September 15, 1995.[NIC4] Nichols, Randall K., "Russian Cryptography Parts 1-3,"       ACA-L, September 05, 1995.[NIC5] Nichols, Randall K., "A Tribute to William F. Friedman",       NCSA FORUM, August 20, 1995.[NIC6] Nichols, Randall K., "Wallis and Rossignol,"  NCSA       FORUM, September 25, 1995.[NIC7] Nichols, Randall K., "Arabic Contributions to       Cryptography,", in The Cryptogram, ND95, ACA, 1995.[NIC8] Nichols, Randall K., "U.S. Coast Guard Shuts Down Morse       Code System," The Cryptogram, SO95, ACA publications,       1995.[NIC9] Nichols, Randall K., "PCP Cipher," NCSA FORUM, March 10,       1995.[NICX] Nichols, R. K., Keynote Speech to A.C.A. Convention,       "Breaking Ciphers in Other Languages.," New Orleans,       La., 1993.[NORM] Norman, Bruce, 'Secret Warfare', David & Charles,       Newton Abbot (Devon) 1973.[NORW] Marm, Ingvald and Sommerfelt, Alf, "Norwegian," Teach       Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1967.[NSA]  NSA's Friedman Legacy - A Tribute to William and       Elizabeth Friedman, NSA Center for Cryptological       History, 1992, pp 201 ff.[OP20] "Course in Cryptanalysis," OP-20-G', Navy Department,       Office of Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, 1941.[PIER] Pierce, Clayton C., "Cryptoprivacy", 325 Carol Drive,       Ventura, Ca. 93003.[POPE] Pope, Maurice, "The Story of Decipherment: From Egyptian       Hieroglyphic to Linear B., Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1975.[RAJ1] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 2 to 6 Letters," G &       C.  Merriam Co., Norman, OK. 1977.[RAJ2] "Pattern and Non Pattern Words of 7 to 8 Letters," G &       C.  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Montgomery, "Room 3603, The Story of British       Intelligence Center in New York During World War II",       New York, Farrar, Straus, 1963.[ROSE] Budge, E. A. Wallis, "The Rosetta Stone," British Museum       Press, London, 1927.[RUNY] Runyan, T. J. and Jan M. Copes "To Die Gallently",       Westview Press 1994, p85-86 ff.[RYSK] Norbert Ryska and Siegfried Herda, "Kryptographische       Verfahren in der Datenverarbeitung," Gesellschaft fur       Informatik, Berlin, Springer-Verlag1980.[SADL] Sadler, A. L., "The Code of the Samurai," Rutland and       Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1969.[SACC] Sacco, Generale Luigi, " Manuale di Crittografia",       3rd ed., Rome, 1947.[SANB] Sanbohonbu, ed., "Sanbohonbu kotokan shokuinhyo." 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Revised 1981[SIG2] "International Code Of Signals For Visual, Sound, and       Radio Communications,"  U. S. Naval Oceanographic       Office, United States Ed., Pub. 102,  1969.[SINK] Sinkov, Abraham, "Elementary Cryptanalysis", The       Mathematical Association of America, NYU, 1966.[SISI] Pierce, C.C., "Cryptoprivacy," Author/Publisher, Ventura       Ca., 1995. (XOR Logic and SIGTOT teleprinters)[SMIT] Smith, Laurence D., "Cryptography, the Science of Secret       Writing," Dover, NY, 1943.[SOLZ] Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. , "The Gulag Archipelago I-       III, " Harper and Row, New York, N.Y., 1975.[STEV] Stevenson, William, 'A Man Called INTREPID',       Macmillan, London 1976.[STIN] Stinson, D. R., "Cryptography, Theory and Practice,"       CRC Press, London, 1995.[STUR] Sturtevant, E. H. and Bechtel, G., "A Hittite       Chrestomathy," Linguistic Society of American and       University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1935.[SUVO] Suvorov, Viktor "Inside Soviet Military Intelligence,"       Berkley Press, New York, 1985.[TERR] Terrett, D., "The Signal Corps: The Emergency (to       December 1941); G. R. Thompson, et. al, The Test(       December 1941 -  July 1943); D. Harris and G. Thompson,       The Outcome;(Mid 1943 to 1945), Department of the Army,       Office of the Chief of Military History, USGPO,       Washington,1956 -1966.[THEO] Theodore White and Annalee Jacoby, "Thunder Out Of       China," William Sloane Assoc., New York, 1946.[TILD] Glover, D. Beaird, Secret Ciphers of The 1876       Presidential Election, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills,       Ca. 1991.[TM32] TM 32-250, Fundamentals of Traffic Analysis (Radio       Telegraph) Department of the Army, 1948.[TRAD] U. S. 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S.,  "Cipher Printing Telegraph Systems For       Secret Wire and Radio Telegraphic Communications," J.       of the IEEE, Vol 45, 109-115 (1926).[VOGE] Vogel, Donald S., "Inside a KGB Cipher," Cryptologia,       Vol XIV, Number 1, January 1990.[WAL1] Wallace, Robert W. Pattern Words: Ten Letters and Eleven       Letters in Length, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA       92654, 1993.[WAL2] Wallace, Robert W. Pattern Words: Twelve Letters and       Greater in Length, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA       92654, 1993.[WATS] Watson, R. W. Seton-, ed, "The Abbot Trithemius," in       Tudor Studies, Longmans and Green, London, 1924.[WEL]  Welsh, Dominic, "Codes and Cryptography," Oxford Science       Publications, New York, 1993.[WELC] Welchman, Gordon, 'The Hut Six Story', McGraw-Hill,       New York 1982.[WHOR] Whorf, B. L., "A Linguistic Consideration of Thinking In       Primitive Communities,"  In Language, Thought, and       Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf, ed. J.       B.  Carroll, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 65-86., 1956.[WINK] Winkle, Rip Van, "Hungarian: The Cryptogram,", March -       April 1956.[WINT] Winterbotham, F.W., 'The Ultra Secret', Weidenfeld       and Nicolson, London 1974.[WOLE] Wolfe, Ramond W., "Secret Writing," McGraw Hill Books,       NY, 1970.[WOLF] Wolfe, Jack M., " A First Course in Cryptanalysis,"       Brooklin College Press, NY, 1943.[WRIX] Wrixon, Fred B. "Codes, Ciphers and Secret Languages,"       Crown Publishers, New York, 1990.[XEN1] PHOENIX, "Xenocrypt Handbook," American Cryptogram       Association, 1 Pidgeon Dr., Wilbraham, MA., 01095-2603,       for publication March, 1996.[YARD] Yardley, Herbert, O., "The American Black Chamber,"       Bobbs-Merrill, NY, 1931.[YAR1] Yardley, H. O., "The Chinese Black Chamber," Houghton       Mifflin, Boston, 1983.[YOKO] Yukio Yokoyama, "Tokushu joho kaisoka," unpublished       handwritten manuscript.[YOUS] Youshkevitch, A. P., Geschichte der Mathematik im       Mittelatter, Liepzig, Germany: Teubner, 1964.[YUKI] Yukio Nishihara, "Kantogan tai-So Sakusenshi," Vol 17.,       unpublished manuscript, National Institute for Defense       Studies Military Archives, Tokyo.,(hereafter NIDS       Archives)[ZIM]  Zim, Herbert S., "Codes and Secret Writing." William       Morrow Co., New York, 1948.[ZEND] Callimahos, L. D.,  Traffic Analysis and the Zendian       Problem, Agean Park Press, 1984.  (also available       through NSA Center for Cryptologic History)
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