Classical Cryptography Course,
Volumes I and II from Aegean Park Press

By Randy Nichols (LANAKI)
President of the American Cryptogram Association from 1994-1996.
Executive Vice President from 1992-1994

Table of Contents
  • Lesson 1
  • Lesson 2
  • Lesson 3
  • Lesson 4
  • Lesson 5
  • Lesson 6
  • Lesson 7
  • Lesson 8
  • Lesson 9
  • Lesson 10
  • Lesson 11
  • Lesson 12


    December 27, 1995



    In Lecture 5, we begin our attack on substitution cipherscreated in languages other than English. First, we develop anunderstanding of cryptography in its role as a culturaluniversal. Next, we tour the elements of language and thecommon cryptographic threads that make cryptographic analysispossible. We then look at GERMAN Xenocrypts, applied trafficanalysis and the ADFGVX cipher of 1918 WWI vintage.


    Xenocrypts are foreign language substitutions. Solving aXenocrypt (aka XENO) gives double pleasure; not only do youhave the fun of solving, but also the satisfaction of knowingthat you are acquiring a bowing acquaintance with otherlanguages.

    PHOENIX has compiled and edited a Xenocrypt handbook [XEN1]which brings together material published in The Cryptogramsince 1940. The book will be available to the KREWE in 1996.It is an excellent tool. Lectures 5-7 will augment hisefforts. Quoted from PHOENIX's Preface in reference [XEN1]:

    "Don't be afraid of Xenocrypts. The languages used should not offer particular difficulties. Comparing an English printers table (ETAINORSH...) with any of these languages will show a lot of resemblance. That's because English contains elements of most of the languages. Spellings and endings will differ, but there often will be solid 'root' that strongly resembles an English word. Most short English words are of Saxon origin, akin to Danish, Swedish, Dutch, and more remotely German. Longer words come to us from Latin or Norman - French in many instances, and all have cognates in common with English, generally differing slightly from the English version, but often not at all, especially in French."

    In New Orleans, I keynoted the 1994 ACA Convention with thepossibility that any language could be learned from itscryptographic building blocks. Xenocrypts represent a culturaluniversal expressed at its common denominator - mathematics.[NICX]

    I suggested that languages be taught in schools first viacryptography and then via sound and structure. This is how Itaught myself the rudiments of Russian, Japanese and Korean.Cryptography enhanced my passable understanding of French andreasonable efforts with German.

    The real enjoyment came when I could understand Goethe inGerman, and translated parts of Budo Shoshinshu by the 17Century author Daidoji Yuzan [SADL]. Solving Xeno's can openour eyes to other cultures.


    Linguistic anthropologists have used cryptography toreconstruct ancient languages by comparing contemporarydescendants and in so doing make discoveries about history.Others make inferences about universal features of language,linking them to uniformities in the brain. Still others studylinguistic differences to discover varied world views andpatterns of thought in a multitude of cultures. [KOTT]

    The Rossetta Stone found by the Egyptian Dhautpol and theFrench officer Pierre-Francois Bouchard near the town ofRosetta in the Nile Delta, gave us a look at Syriac, Greek andEgyptian Hieroglyphs all of the same text. The fascinatingstory of its decipherment is covered in Kahn. [KAHN] Ofspecial interest was the final decipherment of the Egyptianwriting containing homophones - different signs standing forthe same sound. [ROSE]

    Until the late 1950's linguists thought that the study oflanguage should proceed through a sequence of stages ofanalysis. The first stage was phonology, the study of soundsused in speech. Phones are speech sounds present andsignificant in each language. They were recorded using theInternational Phonetic Alphabet, a series of symbols devised todescribe dozens of sounds that occur in different languages.

    The next stage was morphology, the study of forms in whichsound combine, to form morphemes - words and their meaningfulconstituents. The word cats has two morphemes /cat/ and /s/indicating the animal and plurality. A lexicon is a dictionaryof all morphemes. A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unitof speech. [MAYA] Isolating or analytic languages are thosein which words are morphologically unanalyzable, like Chineseor Vietnamese. Agglutinative languages string togethersuccessive morphemes. Turkish is a good example of this.Inflection languages change the form of a word to mark allkinds of grammar distinctions, such as tense or gender. Indo-European languages tend to be highly inflectional.

    The next step was to study syntax, the arrangement and order ofwords in phrases and sentences.


    No language contains all the sounds in the InternationalPhonetic Alphabet. Nor is the number of phonemes -significantsound contrasts in a given language - infinite. Phonemes lackmeaning in themselves but through sound contrasts distinguishmeaning. We find them in minimal pairs, words that resembleeach in al but one sound. An example is the minimal pairpit/bit. The /p/ and /b/ are phonemes in English. Anotherexample is bit and beat which separates the phonemes /I/ and/i/ in English. [KOTT] Friedman describes a similar phenomenacalled homologs and uses them to solve a variety ofcryptograms. [FR2] A phoneme is the smallest unit ofdistinctive sound. [MAYA]

    Standard (American) English (SE), the region free dialect of TVnetwork newscasters, has about thirty-five phonemes of at leasteleven vowels and twenty four consonants. The number ofphonemes varies from language to language - from fifteen tosixty, averaging between thirty and forty. The number ofphonemes varies between dialects. In American English, vowelphonemes vary noticeably from dialect to dialect. Readersshould pronounce the words in Figure 5-1, paying attention towhether they distinguish each of the vowel sounds. WeAmericans do not generally pronounce them at all. [BOLI]

                               Figure 5-1                         Vowel Phonemes                   Standard American English       According to Height of Tongue and Tongue Position               in Front, Center and Back of Mouth
    Tongue High i u I U ea ua o e ou Mid ae a Tongue Low Tongue Central Tongue Front Back
    Phonetic symbols are identified by English words that includethem; note that most are minimal pairs.

    Phonetics studies sounds in general, what people actually sayin various languages.

    Phonemics is concerned with sound contrasts of a particularlanguage. In English /b/ and /v/ are phonemes, occurring inminimal pairs such as bat and vat. In Spanish, the contractbetween [b] and [v] doesn't distinguish meaning, and are notphonemes. The [b] sound is used in Spanish to pronounce wordsspelled with either b or v. (Non phonemic phones are enclosedin brackets).

    In any language a given phoneme extends over a phonetic range.In English the phoneme /p/ ignores the phonetic contrastbetween the [pH] in pin and the [p] in spin. How many of younoticed the difference? [pH] is aspirated, so that a puff ofair follows the [p]. not true with [p] in spin. To see thedifference, light a match and watch the flame as you say thetwo words. In Chinese the contrast between [p] and [pH] isdistinguished only by the contrast between an aspirated andunaspirated [p]. [BOLI]


    Noam Chomsky's influential book Syntactic Structures (1957)advocated a new method of linguistic analysis - Transform-ational-generative grammar. [CHOM] Chomsky felt that alanguage is more than the surface phenomena just discussed(sounds, words, word order). He felt that all languages shareda limed set of organizing principles. Chomsky observed thatevery normal child who grows up in society develops languageeasily and automatically. This occurs because the braincontains a genetically transmitted blueprint, or basiclinguistic plan for building language. Chomsky called thisuniversal grammar. As children learn their native language,they experiment with their blueprint, reject some sectionsapplying to other languages and gradually focus in and acceptthe principles of their own language. They do this at aboutthe same age. His study also showed that we learn languages atsimilar rates. There are universal improper generalizations(foot, foots; hit, hitted) which eventually are corrected.

    We master a specific grammar as we learn to speak. These ruleslet us convert what we want to say into what we do say. Peoplewho hear us and speak our language understand our meaning.This works at a cryptographic level also. Chomskydistinguishes between competence (what the speaker must anddoes know about his language in order to speak and understand)and performance (what a speaker actually says in socialsituations or writes to someone ). Competence develops duringchildhood and becomes an unconscious structure. The linguistor cryptographer must discover the structure by looking atdeep structures (the mental level) and the surface structure(actual speech) to find the transformational rules that linkthem. Figure 5-2. shows the Chomsky Model.

                               Figure 5-2                         Chomsky Model               For Message From Speaker to Hearer                    or Writer on Both Sides
    ... Sounds (phonological component)... . . . . . . Surface-structure sentence Surface-structure sentence . . . . Transformational rule Transformational rule . . . . Deep structure sentence Deep structure sentence . . . . . . Thought Thought (meaning, semantic component (meaning, semantic component ^ SPEAKER HEARER
    The Chomsky model tells us why Xenos are so valuable.The human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizinglanguage. The fact that people can learn foreign languages andthat words and ideas can be translated from one language intoanother supports the Chomsky model that all humans have similarlinguistic abilities and thought processes.


    Other linguists take the view that rather than universalstructures as clues to relationships between languages, theybelief that different languages produce different thinkingand writing. Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf argue thatspeakers think about things in particular ways. For example,the third person singular pronouns of English (he, she, him,her, his, hers) distinguish gender, whereas those of thePalaung of Burma do not. [BURL] [SAPR] [WHOR]

    Gender exists in English, although a fully developed noun-gender and adjative-agreement system as in French and otherRomance Languages (la belle fille, la beau fils), does not.The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that English speakerspay more attention to differences between males and femalesthan the Palaung but less than the French and Spanish speakers.

    English divides time into past, present, and future. Hopi,a language of the Pueblo region of the Native AmericanSouthwest does not. Hopi does distinguish between events thatexist or have existed and those don't or don't yet, along withimaginary and hypothetical events. Differing perceptions oftime and reality cause difference in spoken and writtenthought.


    A lexicon or vocabulary is a language's dictionary, its set ofnames for things, events and ideas. APEX DX can probablyconfirm that Eskimos have several distinct words for snow. InEnglish all forms of snow are the same (unless you are a dopedealer). The Nuer of the Sudan have an elaborate vocabulary todescribe cattle. Specialized distinctions between groups iscalled focal vocabulary. Cattle vocabulary of Texas ranchersis more extensive than New Yorkers; Aspen ski bumsdifferentiate types of snow that are missing from the lexiconsof Florida retirees. Ten years ago who would have 'faxed'anything. Simplification of often used words are calledmonolexemes and compound expressions are simplified such astropical storm to rain. A television becomes TV, an automobilea car, and a videocassette recorder becomes a VCR.

    Semantics refers to a language meaning system. Language,culture and thought are interrelated. There is considerabledifference between female and male Americans in regard to colorterms. Distinctions implied by such terms as salmon, rust,peach, beige, teal, mauve, cranberry, and dusk orange aren't inthe vocabularies of most American men. Ask a fashionable womanand she will know them all. [LAKE]


    Knowledge of linguistic relationships is often valuable todetermine the events of the past 5000 years. By studyingcontemporary daughter languages, past language features can bereconstructed. Daughter languages descend from the same parentlanguage that has been changing for thousands of years. Theoriginal language from which they diverge is called aprotolanguage. French and Spanish are daughter languages ofLatin. Language evolves over time into subgroups (closelyrelated from a taxonomy point of view) but with distinctcultural differences. Figure 5-3. shows the main languagesand subgroups of the Indo European language stock.

    All these daughter languages have developed out of theprotolanguage (Proto-Indo-European) spoken in Northern Europeabout 5,000 years ago. Note subgroupings. English, a memberof the Germanic branch, is more closely related to German andDutch than it is to Italic or Romance languages such as Frenchand Spanish. However, English shares many linguistic featureswith French through borrowing and diffusion. [FROM]

    The doctrine of linguistic relativity is central tocryptographic treatment of language ciphers. It states thatall known languages and dialects are effective means ofcommunication. [KOTT] Nichols Theorem states that if theyare linguistically related, they can be codified, enciphered,deciphered and treated as cryptographic units for analysis andstatistical treatment. [NICX]

                              Figure 5 -3             Main Languages of Indo-European Stock                       INDO-EUROPEAN                            .............................................................  .             .                .                         .  .             .                .                         .CELTIC        ITALIC          GERMANIC                     .  .             .             .      . . . . .             .  .             .             .              .             .o Welsh         .             .              .             .o Irish         .           West            North          .o Scots Gaelic  .             .               .            .o Breton        .             .               .            .                .             .               .            .             ROMANCE         o Dutch         o Danish      .                .            o English       o Icelandic   .              Latin          o Flemish       o Norwegian   .                .            o Frisian       o Swedish     .                .            o German                      .              o Catalan      o Yiddish                     .              o French                                     .              o Italian                                    .              o Portuguese                                 .              o Provencal                                  .              o Rumanian                                   .              o Spanish                                    .                                                           .                                                           ...............................................................        .              ..                     .        .              .HELLENIC            Albanian   .              .   .                           .              .   .                          Armenian        .Ancient Greek                                 .   .                                          .   .                                          . Greek                                        .                                              .                                              .................................................                     .                    ..                     .                    .INDO-IRANIAN        BALTIC                SLAVIC    .                 .                    .    .                 .                    .    .                o Latvian            o Bulgarian    .                o Lithuanian         o Czech    .                                     o Macedonian    .                                     o Polisho Old Persian                             o Russiano Persian                                 o Serbo-Croatiano SANSKRIT                                o Slovak     .                                    o Slovenian     .                                    o Ukrainian     .  o Bengali  o Hindi  o Punjabi  o Urdu


    Figure 5-3 pertains to live languages. Professor Cyrus H.Gordon in his fascinating book "Forgotten Scripts" shows howcryptography is used to recover ancient writings. He tells thestory of the unraveling of each of these ancient languages:Egyptian, Old Persion, Sumer-Akkadian, Hittite, Ugaritic,Eteocretan, Minoan and Eblaite. He specializes in cuniform andhieroglyphic inscriptions and gives us a glimpse into theancient societies that gave birth to the Western world. [GORD]See also references [BARB], [POPE] and [STUR].


    There is a common cryptographic thread for most languages.All known writing systems are partly or wholly phonetic, andexpress the sounds of a particular language. Writing is speechput in visible form, in such a way that any reader instructedin its conventions can reconstruct the vocal message. Writingas "visible speech" was invented about five thousand years agoby Sumerians and almost simultaneously by ancient Egyptians.

    The ancient Mayan knew that it was 12 cycles, 18 katuns, 16tuns, 0 uinals, and 16 kins since the beginning of the GreatCycle. The day was 12 Cib 14 Uo and was ruled by the seventhLord of the Night. The moon was nine days old. Precisely5,101 of our years and 235 days had passed. So said theancient Mayan scribes. We remember the day as 14 May 1989.


    Three kinds of writing systems have been identified: Rebuswhich is a combination of logograms and phonetic signs;Syllabic such as CV - consonant vowel such as Cherokee orInuit; and Alphabetic, which is phonemic, the individualconsonants and vowels make up the sounds of the language.

    Table 5-2 differentiates writing systems by the number of signsused. [MAYA]

                             TABLE 5-3         Writing System              No. of Signs         Logographic         Sumerian                         600+         Egyptian                       2,500         Hittite Hieroglyphic             497         Chinese                        5,000+         "Pure" Syllabic         Persian                          40         Linear B                         87         Cypriote                         56         Cherokee                         85         Alphabetic or Consonantal         English                          26         Anglo-Saxon                      31         Sanskrit                         35         Etruscan                         20         Russian                          36         Hebrew                           22         Arabic                           28
    Michael D. Coe classifies the entire Proto- Mayan languages.In fourteen daughter divisions of Proto-Mayan, there are thirtyone sub languages from Huastec to Tzuthil. Extraordinarystory of applied cryptanalysis and applied linguistics.[MAYA]


    I used to think that Xenocrypts - non English cryptograms, werevery difficult to solve. The 'aha' light came on several yearsago, when I realized that most languages share the commonframework of mathematics and statistics. To be able to solveXenocrypts, it is only necessary to learn the basic (group)mathematical structure of the language, to use a bidirectionaltranslation dictionary and to recognize the underlying cipherconstruct. [NICX]

    Many challenge ciphers start with the problem of recognizingthe language and then the distribution of characters within theparticular language. The legendary W. F. Friedman onceremarked: "treating the frequency distribution as a statisticalcurve, when such treatment is possible, is one of the mostuseful and trustworthy methods in cryptography." [FR1], [FRE]

    Table 1 gives the frequency distributions of ten of my favoritelanguages (sans Russian, Chinese and Japanese which requirecharacter sets that will not transfer via my e-mail). Thefrequencies in Table 5-1 have been developed from varioussources. Table 5-1 frequencies may differ from other publisheddata, based on text derived solely from literature or militarysources, because I have included the practical text from mysolved Xeno's over the years. Letters used in cryptograms tendto shift the frequency distribution. Frequencies of letters,and their order, are not fixed quantities in any language.Group frequencies, however, are fairly constant in everylanguage. This is the common thread - the linguisticrelativity of all languages. [NICX], [NIC1]

                               TABLE 5-1    Partial Frequency Distribution For Cracking Xenocrypts            16   8   7  6    5    4     2       <1NORWEGIAN:  E   RNS  T  AI  LDO  GKM  UVFHPA'  JBO' YAECWXZQ            10  9    7    6    4   3      <2LATIN:      I   E   UTA  SRN  OM  CPL    (bal)            18   8    7    6   5  4   3   2    <1FRENCH:     E    AN  RSIT  UO  L  D  CMP  VB   F-Y            14  13  12   8  6    5     4   3   2   <1PORTUGUESE: A   E   O   RS  IN  DMT   UCL  P  QV   (bal)            18  11  8  7    5     4    3    2     <1GERMAN:     E   N   I  RS  ADTU  GHO  LBM  CW    (bal)            15  12  8    7    5   4   3    1      <1CATALAN:    E   A   S  ILRNT  OC  DU  MP  BVQGF   (bal)            16  13  8   6    5      4    3    <2HUNGARIAN:  E   A   T   OS   LNZ   KIM  RGU  (bal)            13  12  11  9  7    6   5    3     2   <1ITALIAN:    E   A   I   O  L   NRT  SC  DMO'U  VG   (bal)            20  10   7   6  5   4   3      2       <1DUTCH:      E   N   IAT  O  DL  S  GKH  UVWBJMPZ   (bal)            13   9  8   7   5    4   3    1    <1SPANISH:    EA   O  S  RNI  DL  CTU  MP   GYB  (bal)


    English has its characteristic frequencies and sequence data(based on 10,000 letters):

    %       12   10 8   8 7 7 7 6 5   4-3     2      1     < 1ENGLISH: E / T  A / O N I S R H / LDCU / PFMW / YBGV /  KQXJZ
    GROUP PERCENTAGES:A E I O U          38.58%L N R S T          33.43%J K Q X Z           1.11%E T A O N          45.08%E T A O N I S R H  70.02%
    ORDERDigram Order:  TH / HE / AN / IN / ER / RE / ES / ON / EA / TI                / AT / ST / EN / ND / ORTrigram Order: THE / AND / THA / ENT / ION / TIO / FOR / NDEReversals:   ER RE / ES SE / AN NA /TI IT /ON NO / IN NIInitials:  T A O   S H I W C   B P F D M RFinals:    E S T D N R O YVowel %    40%   (y included)
    The ACA Xenocrypt Handbook compiled by PHOENIX, developssimilar mathematical data on fifteen languages presented in TheCryptogram on a regular basis. [XEN1]

    Review Lecture 2 Kullback's tests and Friedman's I.C. test.

    Kullback gives the following tables for Monoalphabetic andDigraphic texts for eight languages:

    Note that the English plain text value is slightly less thanFriedman's. [KULL] [SINK]

                      Monoalphabetic        Digraphic                     Text                 Text   English        0.0661N(N-1)          0.0069N(N-1)   French         0.0778N(N-1)          0.0093N(N-1)   German         0.0762N(N-1)          0.0112N(N-1)   Italian        0.0738N(N-1)          0.0081N(N-1)   Japanese       0.0819N(N-1)          0.0116N(N-1)   Portuguese     0.0791N(N-1)   Russian        0.0529N(N-1)          0.0058N(N-1)   Spanish        0.0775N(N-1)          0.0093N(N-1)                     Random Text   Monographic         Digraphic        Trigraphic   .038N(N-1)         .0015N(N-1)      .000057N(N-1)
    XENO's - foreign language substitutions, as given in theXenocrypt Department of The Cryptogram, are usually quotations,or simple normal wording. Thus the Frequency Table of aXenocrypt will follow closely to the normal Frequency Table ofits language. Arranging these two tables in order offrequency, rather than alphabetically, may be used for testingprobable equivalents. When words are found, if the meaning isnot known, a dictionary helps.

    The Contact and Position Tables are used just as in solvingEnglish cryptograms.

    Lets start off with German Xenocrypts.

    GERMAN DATA [ Based on 60,046 letters of text in FRE2]Absolute Frequencies

    A   3,601    G  1,921   L  1,988   Q      6   V   523B   1,023    H  2,477   M  1,360   R  4,339   W   899C   1,620    I  4,879   N  6,336   S  4,127   X    12D   3,248    J    192   O  1,635   T  3,447   Y    24E  10,778    K    747   P    499   U  2,753   Z   654F     958                                       ======                                                60,046Monographic Kappa Plain, German Language = 0.0787, I.C. = 2.05Relative Frequencies reduced to 1000 lettersE     180    T    57    G    32    F    16     P     8N     106    D    54    O    27    W    15     J     3I      81    U    46    C    27    K    13     Y     -R      72    H    41    M    23    Z    11     X     -S      69    L    33    B    17    V     9     Q     -A      60                                         =======                                                   1,000
    Groups:Vowels: A, E, I, O, U, Y = 39.4%
    High-Frequency Consonants: D, N, R, S, T = 35.8%
    Medium-Frequency Consonants: B, C, F, G, H, L, M, W = 20.4%
    Low-Frequency Consonants: J, K, P, Q, V, X, Z = 4.4 %

    8 most frequent letters (E, N, I, R, S, A, T, and D) = 67.9% (descending order)

    Initials ( based on 9,568 letters of text)

    D   1,716     U    550    Z   343    K   263    O   135A     762     W    544    M   339    P   181    T   106S     698     G    461    N   306    R   167    C    22E     686     B    460    F   280    L   158    Q     2I     581     V    408    H   265    J   135      ======                                                   9,568Digraphs [Based on 60,046 letters reduced to 5,000 digraphs]   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   MA  4  14  10   4  33   7   9   7   1   1   2  33  13B  6              48       1   1   5           3C                            130           5D 29   2       8 127   1   2   2  60       1   3   2E 13  22  10  31  13  12  32  24  90   2   6  28  25F  7   1       3  15   7   2       2           2   1G 10   1       8  78   1   2   2   8       2   7   1H 29   1       8  64   1   2   1  14       2   8   3I  3   1  39   7  91   2  18   7   2       7  12  11J  4               8K 12   1       1  11       1   1   1           5L 26   3   1   6  27   1   2      37       3  20    1M 16   3       4  26   2  22   1  14    1  2   1   11N 39  12 118  58   9  57   8  35   4   10  6  10   18O  1   3   5   3  11   3   3   3           1  18    6P 10               5   4       1   2           1QR 34  11   5  35  60   9  12   9  37    2  11  6    8S 14   6  55  13  46   3   7   3  30    1   5  4    7T 25   3      17  88   2   4   6  40    1   3  7    3U  1   2   8   2  37  15   5   1            2  2   11V  1              19               3W 16              24              20    3XYZ  1           1   8               5            1
    Digraphs [Based on 60,046 letters reduced to 5,000 digraphs]

        N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   ZA  48       2      22  27  23  36   1   1           1B       3          11   2   1   3       1           1CD   2   4   1       5   6   2   9   2   2           2E 235   3   6     195  68  28  24   9  15           7F   1   3          10   2  10  12G   3   1          11   8   5   8   2   1           1H   6   6   1      20   4  23   7   2   3           1I  84  13   1       7  53  44   1   2   1           1J                                   3K       9          10   1   5   4L   2   4              10  12   6   1               1M   1   8   5       1   3   3   9   1   1           1N  18   8   5       4  36  27  20  10  17          14O  33   1   5      18  12   4   1   1   5           1P       7   2       7       1   1Q                               1R  12  19   3       6  22  18  26   6   8           5S   3  16   6       2  40  57   9   5   5       1   5T   4   4          14  20   7  16   2  10          13U  76       2      18  28  14   1   1   2           1V      21W       6                       6XYZ       2                    4 27       4
    Digraphic Kappa plain = 0.0111, I.C. = 7.50

    95 Digraphs comprising 75% of German plain text based on 5,000digraphs arranged according to relative frequencies.

    EN-  235   RE- 60  NA- 39  ED- 31  TA- 25  HR- 20  TU- 16ER-  195   DI- 60  LI- 37  SI- 30  EM- 25  LL- 20  WA- 16CH-  130   NE- 58  UE- 37  HA- 29  EH- 24  VE- 19  UF- 15DE-  127   NG- 57  RI- 37  DA- 29  EU- 24  RO- 19  FE- 15ND-  118   ST- 57  AU- 36  EL- 28  WE- 24  OR- 18  EW- 14IE-   91   SC- 55  NS- 36  US- 28  HT- 23  UR- 18  AB- 14EI-   90   IS- 53  NI- 35  ET- 28  AT- 23  NN- 18  HI- 14TE-   88   BE- 48  RD- 35  AS- 27  AR- 22  RT- 18  TR- 14IN-   84   AN- 48  RA- 34  LE- 27  RS- 22  OL- 18  SA- 14GE-   78   SE- 46  AE- 33  NT- 27  EB- 22  IG- 17  MI- 14    -----  IT- 44  ------  ZU- 27  VO- 21  NW- 17  NZ- 14a)  1,236  SS- 40  2,508 b)LA- 26  NU- 20  TD- 16  UD- 14           TI- 40          ME- 26  WI- 20  MA- 16  SD- 13UN-    76  IC- 39  ON- 33  RU- 26  TS- 20  SO- 16  ------ES-    68          AL- 33                           3,750HE-    64          EG- 32
    Frequent Digraph Reversals (based on table of 5,000 digraphs)
    EN-  235   NE- 58  IE- 91  EI- 90  ES- 68  SE- 46  AN- 48ER-  195   RE- 60  IN- 84  NI- 35  IS- 53  SI- 30  IT- 44DE-  127   ED- 31  GE- 78  EG- 32          NA- 39  TI- 40
    Rare Digraph Reversals (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)
    CH-  130   HC-  0  ND-113  DN- 2  NG- 57  GN-3  SC- 55 CS-0
    Doublets (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)
    SS-  40  EE- 13  FF- 7  RR-  6  GG-  2  PP- 2  OO - 1LL-  20  MM- 11  TT- 7  AA-  4  II-  2  HH- 1  UU - 1NN-  18  DD-  8
    Initial Digraphs (based on 9,568 words)
    DE-  805  EI- 300  DA- 244  WE- 192  ER- 153  ZU- 124  ST- 112DI-  567  GE- 299  VO- 214  VE- 172  HA- 140  MI- 117  IN- 111UN-  428  BE- 252  SI- 197  WI- 155  AL- 134  SN- 112  SE- 111AU-  318
    Trigraphs (top 102 based on 60,046 letters of German text)
    SCH- 666  ERE- 313  NEN- 198  AUS- 162  IST- 142  HRE- 124DER- 602  ENS- 270  SSE- 191  TIS- 159  STA- 141  HER- 122CHE- 599  CHT- 264  REI- 190  BER- 157  DES- 140  ACH- 119DIE- 564  NGE- 263  TER- 188  ENI- 157  FUE- 139  GES- 118NDE- 541  NDI- 259  REN- 185  ENG- 155  NTE- 139  ABE- 117EIN- 519  IND- 254  EIT- 184  ION- 154  UER- 138  ERA- 117END- 481  ERD- 248  EBE- 178  SEN- 152  ERU- 137  BEN- 116DEN- 457  INE- 247  ENE- 175  ITI- 151  TUN- 136  MEN- 115ICH- 453  AND- 246  LIC- 175  AUF- 149  SEI- 133  RIE- 112TEN- 425  RDE- 239  EGE- 173  IES- 149  ESE- 132  VER- 110UNG- 377  ENA- 214  DAS- 172  ASS- 148  ERT- 128  LAN- 109HEN- 332  ERS- 212  ENU- 171  ENW- 148  NDA- 127  ENB- 108UND- 331  EDE- 209  NUN- 169  ENT- 146  IED- 126  ESS- 108GEN- 321  STE- 205  NER- 166  ERI- 143  ERN- 125  LLE- 108ISC- 317  VER- 204  RUN- 163  EST- 142  NAU- 108  TSC- 107ENN- 106  ERG- 106  RIT- 106  EHR- 105  CHA- 104  VON- 104SIC- 103  IGE- 102  ITE- 101  ENZ- 100  ERB- 100  EUT- 100
    Initial Trigraphs (based on 9,568 word beginnings)
    EIN- 242  DAS-  79  SCH-  73  AUF-  64  DEU-  61  UNT-  57VER- 170  BRI-  79  AUS-  69  NER-  63  GES-  60  GRO-  56FUE-  89  DIE-  76  SEI-  68  IND-  62  GEG-  59  AUC-  55SIC-  86  NIC-  73  STA-  65  ALL-  61  UEB-  53  POL-  52WIR-  51
    Tetragraphs (50 top based on 60,046 letters)

    SCHE-398  NUND-106  NICH- 80  ATIO- 65  RSCH- 60  ENZU- 54ISCH-317  ITIS-104  UNGD- 80  GEND- 65  EDEN- 59  ITEN- 54CHEN-296  SICH-103  EITE- 79  TEND- 65  ERGE- 59  KRIE- 54NDER-243  RUNG-101  DEUT- 78  EBER- 67  ESSE- 59  RIEG- 54EINE-218  ANDE-100  FUER- 78  GEGE- 65  UNTE- 59  SDIE- 54ENDE-216  UNGE-100  CHTE- 77  POLI- 64  EICH- 58  URCH- 53NDIE-176  EREI- 94  EGEN- 76  SIND- 64  TLIC- 58  ALLE- 52LICH-168  TION- 93  NEIN- 76  TUNG- 64  INER- 57  DERS- 52ICHT-151  SEIN- 92  IESE- 75  ENSI- 64  EBEN- 56  ENWE- 52TISC-146  IEDE- 91  ERST- 74  FUTS- 64  ENDA- 56  HABE- 52ERDE-144  LAND- 91  RDIE- 74  LITI- 62  ENST- 56  ONEN- 52ENDI-141  SSEN- 90  ERDI- 72  UEBE- 62  IGEN- 56  SCHI- 52NDEN-136  BRIT- 89  STEN- 72  UTSC- 62  ONDE- 56  DEND  51RDEN-133  DASS- 86  CHER- 71  AUCH- 62  TENS- 56  DISC- 51ENUN-120  NTER- 86  INDI- 71  DENS- 62  EDIE- 55  ENEN- 51ICHE-120  EDER- 83  REIN- 71  EIND- 61  ERTE- 55  NACH- 51INDE-111  EREN- 83  DERE- 70  OLIT- 61  HREN- 55  NDAS- 51NGEN-110  ENGE- 81  NGDE- 70  SCHA- 61  TDIE- 55  UNGS- 51ERUN-109  ENAU- 80  ENBE- 68  SCHL- 61  ATEN- 55  ABEN- 50DIES-108  ENIN- 80  RITI- 66  WERD- 61  DIEB- 54  NBER- 50TSCH-107
    One-letter words:O (very rare)

    Two-letter words:ZU SO ER ES DU DA IN AN IM AM UM WO OB JA




    Common prefixes: BE- GE- AUF- ER- VER- HER- UN- HIN- ZU- VOR-

    Common suffixes: -LICH -HEIT -KEIT -ISCH -SCHAFT --EN -ER -IG

    Pecularities: C generally followed by H or K; SC invariably byH giving SCH

    Common articles:

            masc fem  neut plu              masc  fem   neut   the  der  die  das  die      a, one  ein   eine  einof the  des  der  des  der        of a  eines einer einesin the  dem  der  dem  den        in a  einem einer einenby the  den  die  das  die        by a  einen eine  ein
    True Diphthongs: AI AU EI EU

    Consonant Rules:

      B. May appear in any position.C. Combines with other consonants. CH, CK, SCH.D. Forms gerund ending, -ende, -ende; similar to ing in English. Doubles occasionally.F. Doubles freely.G. Occasionally doubles.H. Does not form SH.J. Initial letter only. Rare.K. Doubles with CK if separated by - as in bakkenL. Not followed by CK or TZ.M, N, P, R, T. Doubles freely.Q. Same as English.S. Freely doubled, forms SP ST SK not SC nor SH. SCH acts as a single consonant.V. Initial.W. Does not form Wh.X. Very infrequent. Sound of X is CHSY. Not a final.Z. Never doubles. Follows vowels, changes to TZ. Rare as a final.


    A frequency analysis of Ger-1 yields:
    G  - 20    16.1%           Try G=e.K  - 13    10.5%           Try K=n.J  - 10     8.1%           Try J=i.S  -  9     7.3%D,E - 9     7.3%F - 7       5.6%N,R,H - 6   4.8%V,O,U - 5   4.0%I - 3P,Q,M - 2X,Z,A,T,L - 1B,C,W,Y - 01     2     3    4         5                    6e     i         ein    e i  ni   en  e     e       eGD   QSMJ   TE  GSK  EVGHSIEKSDNRGK-OGFJDNRGH  EVEJGFH   7       8     9           10             11  n   n    ne    i     i  e  e   i  e        enHFKOPFKI   KGJL  SV   VSJJGUAGDJUSNRG   DJEEJGK  EV12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19           en      e n      e  en    gi e   en  i       nZ.  D.  EUUGK  PFKIGHK   DXHGNRGK   MGSOG   GKQUSDNR   FKO   20 eOGFJDNR.
    So the first three letters follow the German frequency table.Note we have ein. Word 19 is und? and word 1 might be es.The frequencies match. Try these substitutions.

    1     2     3    4         5                    6es    i         ein    e i  nis  en deu s  e       euGD   QSMJ   TE  GSK  EVGHSIEKSDNRGK-OGFJDNRGH  EVEJGFH   7       8     9           10             11 und  n    ne    i     i  e  es  i  e   s    enHFKOPFKI   KGJL  SV   VSJJGUAGDJUSNRG   DJEEJGK  EV12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19 u   s      en    u e n   s  e  en    eide   en  i s    und*Z. *D.  EUUGK  PFKIGHK   DXHGNRGK   MGSOG   GKQUSDNR   FKO   20deu sOGFJDNR.
    A common trigram is sch. Word 20 might be deutsch. Word 1could be es followed by gibt. Word 17 might be beide.

    1     2     3    4         5                    6es   gibt       ein    e i  nischen deutscher     teurGD   QSMJ   TE  GSK  EVGHSIEKSDNRGK-OGFJDNRGH  EVEJGFH   7       8     9           10             11rund  n    net   i     ittel estlic e   st  tenHFKOPFKI   KGJL  SV   VSJJGUAGDJUSNRG   DJEEJGK  EV12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19 u   s      en   un e n   sprechen   beide   englisch   und*Z. *D.  EUUGK  PFKIGHK   DXHGNRGK   MGSOG   GKQUSDNR   FKO   20deutschOGFJDNR.
    Word 18 becomes english and word 16 could be speaks in german =sprechen. (insert above)

    I note that I have missed a high frequency letter pair E=a.Inserting brings three additional words.

    1     2     3    4         5                    6es   gibt    a  ein  americanischen-deutscher  amateurGD   QSMJ   TE  GSK  EVGHSIEKSDNRGK-OGFJDNRGH  EVEJGFH   7       8     9           10             11rund  n    net   im   mittelwestliche   staaten  amHFKOPFKI   KGJL  SV   VSJJGUAGDJUSNRG   DJEEJGK  EV12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19 u   s   allen   un e n   sprechen   beide   englisch   und*Z. *D.  EUUGK  PFKIGHK   DXHGNRGK   MGSOG   GKQUSDNR   FKO   20deutschOGFJDNR.
    The flow of the german now is clear. A little worterbuch givesus the balance of letter relationships.

    1     2     3    4         5                    6es   gibt   ja  ein  americanischen-deutscher  amateurGD   QSMJ   TE  GSK  EVGHSIEKSDNRGK-OGFJDNRGH  EVEJGFH   7       8     9           10             11rundfunk   netz  im   mittelwestliche   staaten  amHFKOPFKI   KGJL  SV   VSJJGUAGDJUSNRG   DJEEJGK  EV12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19 u   s   allen  funkern   sprechen   beide   englisch   und*Z. *D.  EUUGK  PFKIGHK   DXHGNRGK   MGSOG   GKQUSDNR   FKO   20deutschOGFJDNR.
    The keyword = sauerkraut.

    Note the simularities to English Aristocrat solving and toEnglish endings and words. Note the group statistics of thetwo languages and my comments on common threads. Do you seehow this commonality flows from Figure 5-1?


    Lets remove the word divisions and try a German Patristocrat.

    Ger-2. Traurige Wahrheit. (zwei ewige) Eng K4     GEMINATOR     1       2       3       4       5       6       7   JGKMH   FDZJM   JZMKJ   IMRKJ   ICGXR   MYJWG   XQXRI     8       9      10      11      12      13      14   IMJQJ   RGELP   MELJI   XQQLJ   MFCHJ   WQMFI   JQXRM    15      16       17     18       19     20      21   YJWGX   QMGFI   CGRME   LFKCR   DGMEL   JWCPH   JWFJM    22     23   RGFJM   R.
    The hint tells us that the words [zwei ewige] is in thecryptogram plain text. We also know that K4 password schemehas been used. Nichols rule says ignore the descriptive partin the title as a red hering.

    Start with the frequency analysis:

    J - 17  15.3%   K -  5  4.5%   O - 0M - 15  13.5%   C -  5  4.5%   A - 0R -  9   8.1%   W -  5  4.5%   B - 0G -  9   8.1%   E -  4  3.6%   N - 0I -  7   6.3%   H -  3  2.7%   T - 0Q -  7   6.3%   Z -  2  1.8%   S - 0X -  6   5.4%   Y -  2  1.8%   V - 0F -  6   5.4%   P -  2  1.8%   U - 0L -  5   4.5%   D -  2  1.8%
    Let J=e and note the patterns at groups 2 and 3 for thehint zwei ewige. So Z=w, D=z, M=i K=g.

         1       2       3       4       5       6       7   e gi     zwei   ewige    i ge           i e   JGKMH   FDZJM   JZMKJ   IMRKJ   ICGXR   MYJWG   XQXRI     8       9      10      11      12      13      14    ie e           i  e        e   i   e     i     e   i   IMJQJ   RGELP   MELJI   XQQLJ   MFCHJ   WQMFI   JQXRM    15      16       17     18       19     20      21    e       i         i      g     z i     e       e  ei   YJWGX   QMGFI   CGRME   LFKCR   DGMEL   JWCPH   JWFJM    22     23      ei   RGFJM   R.
    The G is a high frequency letter and could be S, A, or N.Try 'es gibt' in groups 1 and 2. s works, b works, t might.

       1       2       3       4       5       6       7 esgib   tzwei   ewige    i ge     s     i e s JGKMH   FDZJM   JZMKJ   IMRKJ   ICGXR   MYJWG   XQXRI   8       9      10      11      12      13      14  ie e    s      i  e        e   it be     it    e   i IMJQJ   RGELP   MELJI   XQQLJ   MFCHJ   WQMFI   JQXRM  15      16       17     18       19     20      21  e s     i t     s i     tg     z i     e   b   e tei YJWGX   QMGFI   CGRME   LFKCR   DGMEL   JWCPH   JWFJM  22     23  stei RGFJM   R.
    Now we must find the n, r and the a. R might be our n.(see last group). And QQ = mm, A long leap for C=a byfrequency only - later to confirm by digrams. A short leaplets us assume W=r. Placing these guesses in temporarily,we find the following:

       1       2       3       4       5       6       7 esgib   tzwei   ewige   dinge   dasun   ivers   umund JGKMH   FDZJM   JZMKJ   IMRKJ   ICGXR   MYJWG   XQXRI   8       9      10      11      12      13      14 dieme   nschl   iched   ummhe   itabe   rmitd   emuni IMJQJ   RGELP   MELJI   XQQLJ   MFCHJ   WQMFI   JQXRM  15      16       17     18       19     20      21 versu   mistd   asnic   htgan   zsich   eralb   ertei YJWGX   QMGFI   CGRME   LFKCR   DGMEL   JWCPH   JWFJM  22     23 nstei   n RGFJM   R.
    Our digram table helps us with cipher text L and X. X is a goodcandidate for u and L = h is a reasonable guess, because EL =ch brings us two words. Note group 12 now gives us the W=rand I = d! A little help from the dictionary yields Y=v andP=l.

    Putting the word divisions back in we have a quote byDr. Einstein:

    Es gibt zwei ewige dinge das universum und die menschliche dummheit aber mit dem universum ist das nicht ganz sicher. -- Albert Einstein.
    The kewords are (facts; SAD). The plain text x is over thecipher text S for the initial position of the keying alphabets.


    A small sister to cryptanalysis is the applications of trafficanalysis. Traffic analysis was the forerunner to differentialcryptanalysis and a primary reason for the cracking of theGerman Codes in WWII. {Unfortunately, the same principlesworked on the British and American Codes as well.} The GermanArmy (maybe even the German Soul) was dedicated to unquestionedorganization. Paperwork and radio messages must flow to thevarious military units in a prescribed manner. TrafficAnalysis is the branch of signal intelligence analysis whichdeals with the study of external characteristic of signalcommunications.

    The information is used: 1) to effect interception, 2) to aidcryptanalysis, 3) to rate the level and value of intelligencein the absence of the specific message contents and 4) toimprove the security in the communication nets. [AFM]


    Allowing for differences in language and procedure signs andsignals, there are six standard elements for military radiocommunications systems. These are: 1) call-up, 2) order oftraffic, 3) transmission of traffic, 4) receipting for traffic,5) corrections and services, and 6) signing off. [TM32]

    In order to insure proper handling of messages in the field andmessage center, some information was sent in the clear or usingsimple coding. This information about routing and accountingwas usually in the preamble or message postamble. Thisincluded: 1) Serial numbers, message center number, 2) GroupCount, 3) File Date and Time [like a PGP signature] 4) RoutingSystem - origin, destination and relay, (distinction is made asto action or FYI locations) 5) Priority (important stuff wasoriginally signal flashed - hence the term FLASH message forurgent message) 6) transmission and delivery procedure, 7)addresses and signatures, 8) special instructions. As ageneral rule, German high-echelon traffic contained most ofthese items and German low-echelon traffic cut them to aminimum.

    The German penchant for organization could be seen in the waythey handled serial numbers. Any radio message flowing fromdivision level to soldier in the field would have a referenceserial number attached in clear or matrix cipher, by thewriter, the HQ message center, the signal center or code room,the "in desk" , the transmitter, linkage, and/or operator. Therouting system usually consisted of a code and syllabary thatrepresented the location or unit. [HIN1]

    An example taken from WWII U. S. Army procedure:

    A45  BR6  B  STX-O-P  P-A45  BR6-T-N-A45  A-79K  011046ZA-45-W-F2P  SLW  BR6GR 28BT TEXTBT  011046Z  Kwhere:A45 BR6  - multiple callup; receiving callsSTX-O-P -  transmitting call with precedence designation, OP=           operational priorityP-A45  - message priority to A45 only; to others routineBR6-T-N-A45 - BR6 to relay to all except A45A-79K - originator of message011046 - Date and Time Zulu used pre and postambleA-45 -   action destinationW-F2P  SLW  BR6 - Information destinationsGR 28  Group Count.. note how small for such external       information envelope
    You can see where modern E-Mail and word processing systemshave made some of this information easier to handle by theportable desk idea but traffic analysis would still apply.

    American "cryptees' were adept in determining the German Orderof Battle from their cryptonets (ex. from intercepts re limiteddistribution from corp to a theater). Traffic analysis notonly gave the locations but the communication relationshipsbetween units or groups of units in the field. Some Germancommands were allowed latitude in their compositions of codesand ciphers. This proved to be an exploitable fault in theGerman security.


    American success in reconstructing German communicationnetworks was partly do to the appropriate (and sometimes lucky)analysis of the routing system. The radio station could betied into the code group. Crib techniques included focusing onthe relay point, recognizing a book message crib to severallocations, correlating the address and signature cribs, taggingthe operational chatter, separating the addresses, using solvedmessages to give outright routing assignments, syllabarysolutions and changes in the system itself.

    The textual features of the message gave valuable information.Tabulations of messages, text type, and volumes helpeddiscriminate the practice and dummy traffic. Recognition ofthe communications net as order of battle often gave away thecrypto-entity.


    Traffic analysis yields information via Crib messages, Isologsand Chatter. Crib messages assume a partial knowledge of theunderlying plain text through recognition of the externalcharacteristics. Command sitrep reports, up and down Germanchannels, were especially easy for American crypees. Theorigin, serial number range, the cryptonet id, report type, thefile date and time, message length and error messages in theclear, gave a clear picture of the German command process.German order of battle, troop dispositions and movements werededuced by traffic analysis. [TM32]

    An Isolog exists when the underlying plain text is encrypted intwo different systems. They exist because of relay repetitionrequirements, book messages to multiple receivers (spammingwould have been a definite no-no), or error by the code clerk.American crypees were particularly effective in obtainingintelligence from this method.

    Traffic analysis boils down to finding the contactrelationships among units, tracking their movements, buildingup the cryptonet authorities, capitalizing on lack ofrandomness in their structures, and exploiting book and relaycribs. I submit that American intelligence was quitesuccessful in this endeavor against the Germans in WWII.


    "Weh dem der leugt und Klartext funkt" - Lieutenant JaegerGerman 5th Army. ["Woe to him who lies and radios in theclear"]

    Jaeger was a German code expert sent to stiffen the German Codediscipline in France in 1918. Ironically, the double "e" inJaeger's name gave US Army traffic analysis experts a fix oncode changes in 1918.

    ADFGVX, is one of the best known field ciphers in the historyof cryptology. Originally a 5 x 5 matrix of just 5 letters,ADFGX, the system was expanded on June 1, 1918 to a 6th letterV. The letters were chosen for their clarity in Morse: A .-, D-.., F ..-., G --., V ...-, and X -..-.

    W. F. Friedman describes one of the first traffic analysischarts regarding battle activity from May to August, 1918at Marne, and Rheims, France. It was based solely on the ebband flow of traffic in the ADFGVX cipher. This cipher wasrestricted to German High Command communications between andamong the headquarters of divisions and army corps.

    The ADFGVX cipher was considered secure because it combinedboth a good substitution (bipartite fractionation) and anexcellent transposition in one system. During the eight monthhistory of this cipher, only 10 keys were recovered by theAllies (in 10 days of heavy traffic) and fifty percent of themessages on these days were read. These intercepts effectedthe reverse of the German advances (15 divisions) underLudendorff at Montdidier and Compiegne, about 50 miles North ofParis. Solution by the famed French Captain Georges Painvinwas based on just two specialized cases. No general solutionfor the cipher was found by the Allies. In 1933, WilliamFriedman and the SIS found a general solution. French GeneralGivierge, of the Deuxieme Bureau also published a solution tothe general case.

    The June 3 message that Painvin cracked which changed thecourse of WWI:

    From German High Command in Remaugies: Munition-ierungbeschleunigen Punkt Soweit nicut eingesehen auch bei Tag

    "Rush Munitions Stop Even by day if not seen."


    This told the Allies where and when the bombardment precedingthe next major German push was planned.


    26 letters and 10 digits of the ADFGVX were placed into a 6 x 6Bipartite Square:

                   A   D   F   G   V   X          A    F   L   1   A   O   2          D    J   D   W   3   G   U          F    C   I   Y   B   4   P          G    R   5   Q   8   V   E          V    6   K   7   Z   M   X          X    S   N   H   0   T   9PT:  a  l  l     q  u  i  e  t    o  n     t  h  i  sCT:  AG AD AD    GF DX FD GX XV   AV XD    XV XF FD XAPT:  f   r   o   n   t      t   o   d   a   yCT:  AA  GA  AV  XD  XV     XV  AV  DD  AG  FF
    The bilateral cipher which results is transposed with a keyedmatrix, written in by row and removed by column.

                      G  E  R  M  A  N                  3  2  6  4  1  5                  A  G  A  D  A  D                  G  F  D  X  F  D                  G  X  X  V  A  V                  X  D  X  V  X  F                  F  D  X  A  A  A                  G  A  A  V  X  D                  X  V  X  V  A  V                  D  D  A  G  F  F
    and the final CT is:

    Known decipherment was accomplished with the Key and possessionof the original matrix. Fine and dandy but cryptanalysis in1918, was another thing.


    According to William Friedman, there were only three viableways to attack this cipher. The first method required 2 or moremessages with identical plain text beginnings to uncover thetransposition. Under the second method, 2 or more messageswith plain text endings were required to break the flatdistribution shield of the substitution part of the cipher.The German addiction to stereotyped phraseology was soprevalent in all German military communications that in eachdays traffic, messages with similar endings and beginnings werefound (sometimes both). The third method required messageswith the exact same number of letters. Painvin used the firsttwo methods when he cracked the 5 letter ADFGX version inApril, 1918. [FRAA], [FRAB]

    Lest we underestimate the difficulty of this cipher, I think wemight step behind Painvin shoulders as he worked. At 4:30 amon March 21, 6000 guns opened fire on the Allied line at Somme.Five hours later, 62 German Divisions pushed forward on a 40mile front. Radio traffic increased dramatically, Painvin hadjust a few intercepts in the ADFGX cipher and the longer oneshad been split in three parts to prevent anagraming.

    Five letters, therefore, a checkerboard? Simple mono cipher -too flat a distribution.

    The German oddity of first parts of messages with identicalbits and pieces of text larded in the same order in thecryptograms begin to show. Painvin feels the oddity could mostlikely have resulted from transposed beginnings according tothe same key; the identical tops of the columns of thetransposition tableau. Painvin sections the cryptograms bytimeframe:

      chi-110:  (1) ADXDA  (2) XGFXG  (3) DAXXGX  (4) GDADFF  chi-114:  (1) ADXDD  (2) XGFFD  (3) DAXAGD  (4) GDGXD
    He does this with 20 blocks to reconstruct the transpositionkey. Using the principle - long columns to the left, he findssegments 3,6,14, 18 to left. Balance clustered to right.Using other messages with common endings (repeated) He segmentsthe columns to the left. Correctly? No. He uses 18 additionalintercepts to juxtaposition 60 letters AA's, AD's, etc. Usingfrequency count, he finds a monoalphabetic substitution.He finds column 5-8 and 8-5 are inverted.

    Painvin sets up a skeleton checkerboard - he assumes correctlythe order to be side-top:

                         A  D  F  G  X                  A                  D           e                  F                  G                  X
    Since the message was 20 letters, the order might be side-top,repeated, meaning side coordinates would fall on 1st, 3rd,5th.. positions during encipherment, so he separates them byfrequency characteristics. In 48 hours of incredible labor,Painvin pairs the correct letters and builds the checkerboard,solving the toughest field cipher the world had yet seen. Acipher that defends itself by fractionation - the breaking upof PT letters equivalents into pieces, with the consequentdissipation of its ordinary characteristics. The transpositionfurther scatters these characteristics in a particularlyeffective fashion, while dulling the clues that normally helpto reconstruct a transposition.


    Solve these:

    Ger-3.  Kalenderblatt August.  K2 (Sonne)     BRASSPOUNDER





    [ACA]  ACA and You, "Handbook For Members of the American       Cryptogram Association," ACA publications, 1995.[ACA1] Anonymous, "The ACA and You - Handbook For Secure       Communications", American Cryptogram Association,       1994.[AFM]  AFM - 100-80, Traffic Analysis, Department of the Air       Force, 1946.[ALAN] Turing, Alan,  "The Enigma", by A. Hodges. Simon and       Shuster, 1983.[ANDR] Andrew, Christopher, 'Secret Service', Heinemann,       London 1985.[ANNA] Anonymous., "The History of the International Code.",       Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, 1934.[AS]   Anonymous, Enigma and Other Machines, Air Scientific       Institute Report, 1976.[BARB] Barber, F. J. W., "Archaeological Decipherment: A       Handbook," Princeton University Press, 1974.[B201] Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of The Simple       Substitution Cipher with Word Divisions," Course #201,       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1982.[BALL] Ball, W. W. R., Mathematical Recreations and Essays,       London, 1928.[BAR1] Barker, Wayne G., "Course No 201, Cryptanalysis of The       Simple Substitution Cipher with Word Divisions," Aegean       Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1975.[BAR2] Barker, W., ed., History of Codes and Ciphers in the       U.S.  During the Period between World Wars, Part II,       1930 - 1939., Aegean Park Press, 1990.[BAR3] Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of the Hagelin       Cryptograph, Aegean Park Press, 1977.[BARK] Barker, Wayne G., "Cryptanalysis of The Simple       Substitution Cipher with Word Divisions," Aegean Park       Press, Laguna Hills, CA. 1973.[BARR] Barron, John, '"KGB: The Secret Work Of Soviet Agents,"       Bantom Books, New York, 1981.[BAUD] Baudouin, Captain Roger, "Elements de Cryptographie,"       Paris, 1939.[BEES] Beesley, P., "Very Special Intelligence", Doubleday, New       York, 1977.[BLK]  Blackstock, Paul W.  and Frank L Schaf, Jr.,       "Intelligence, Espionage, Counterespionage and Covert       Operations,"  Gale Research Co., Detroit, MI., 1978.[BLOC] Bloch, Gilbert and Ralph Erskine, "Exploit the Double       Encipherment Flaw in Enigma", Cryptologia, vol 10, #3,       July 1986, p134 ff.  (29)[BLUE] Bearden, Bill, "The Bluejacket's Manual, 20th ed.,       Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 1978.[BODY] Brown, Anthony - Cave, "Bodyguard of Lies", Harper and       Row, New York, 1975.[BOLI] Bolinger, D. and Sears, D., "Aspects of Language,"       3rd ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,Inc., New York,       1981.[BOSW] Bosworth, Bruce, "Codes, Ciphers and Computers: An       Introduction to Information Security," Hayden Books,       Rochelle Park, NJ, 1990.[BP82] Beker, H., and Piper, F., " Cipher Systems, The       Protection of Communications", John Wiley and Sons,       NY, 1982.[BRAS] Brasspounder, "Language Data - German," MA89, THe       Cryptogram, American Cryptogram Association, 1989.[BRIT] Anonymous, "British Army Manual of Cryptography", HMF,       1914.[BRYA] Bryan, William G., "Practical Cryptanalysis - Periodic       Ciphers -Miscellaneous", Vol 5, American Cryptogram       Association, 1967.[BURL] Burling, R., "Man's Many Voices: Language in Its       Cultural Context," Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York,       1970.[CAND] Candela, Rosario, "Isomorphism and its Application in       Cryptanalytics, Cardanus Press, NYC 1946.[CAR1] Carlisle, Sheila. 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C., "Cryptanalysis for Microcomputers",       Hayden Books, Rochelle Park, NJ, 1990.[CHOM] Chomsky, Norm, "Syntactic Structures," The Hague:       Mouton, 1957.[CI]   FM 34-60, Counterintelligence, Department of the Army,       February 1990.[COUR] Courville, Joseph B.,  "Manual For Cryptanalysis Of The       Columnar Double Transposition Cipher, by Courville       Assoc., South Gate, CA, 1986.[CLAR] Clark, Ronald W., 'The Man who broke Purple',       Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1977.[COLF] Collins Gem Dictionary, "French," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1979.[COLG] Collins Gem Dictionary, "German," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1984.[COLI] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Italian," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1954.[COLL] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Latin," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1980.[COLP] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Portuguese," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1981.[COLR] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Russian," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1958.[COLS] Collins Gem Dictionary, "Spanish," Collins Clear Type       Press, 1980.[COVT] Anonymous, "Covert Intelligence Techniques Of the Soviet       Union, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, Ca.  1980.[CULL] Cullen, Charles G., "Matrices and Linear       Transformations," 2nd Ed., Dover Advanced Mathematics       Books, NY, 1972.[DAGA] D'agapeyeff, Alexander, "Codes and Ciphers," Oxford       University Press, London, 1974.[DAN]  Daniel, Robert E., "Elementary Cryptanalysis:       Cryptography For Fun," Cryptiquotes, Seattle, WA., 1979.[DAVI] Da Vinci, "Solving Russian Cryptograms", The Cryptogram,       September-October, Vol XLII, No 5. 1976.[DEAU] Bacon, Sir Francis, "De Augmentis Scientiarum," tr. by       Gilbert Watts, (1640) or tr. by Ellis, Spedding, and       Heath (1857,1870).[DEVO] Devours, Cipher A. and Louis Kruh, Machine Cryptography       and Modern Cryptanalysis, Artech, New York, 1985.[DOW]  Dow, Don. L., "Crypto-Mania, Version 3.0", Box 1111,       Nashua, NH. 03061-1111, (603) 880-6472, Cost $15 for       registered version and available as shareware under on CIS or zipnet.[ELCY] Gaines, Helen Fouche, Cryptanalysis, Dover, New York,       1956.[ENIG] Tyner, Clarence E. Jr., and Randall K. Nichols,       "ENIGMA95 - A Simulation of Enhanced Enigma Cipher       Machine on A Standard Personal Computer," for       publication, November, 1995.[EPST] Epstein, Sam and Beryl, "The First Book of Codes and       Ciphers," Ambassador Books, Toronto, Canada, 1956.[EYRA] Eyraud, Charles, "Precis de Cryptographie Moderne'"       Paris, 1953.[FL]   Anonymous, The Friedman Legacy: A Tribute to William and       Elizabeth Friedman, National Security Agency, Central       Security Service, Center for Cryptological History,1995.[FREB] Friedman, William F., "Cryptology," The Encyclopedia       Britannica, all editions since 1929.  A classic article       by the greatest cryptanalyst.[FR1]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,       Military Cryptanalytics Part I - Volume 1, Aegean Park       Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.[FR2]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,       Military Cryptanalytics Part I - Volume 2, Aegean Park       Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1985.[FR3]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,       Military Cryptanalytics Part III, Aegean Park Press,       Laguna Hills, CA, 1995.[FR4]  Friedman, William F. and Callimahos, Lambros D.,       Military Cryptanalytics Part IV,  Aegean Park Press,       Laguna Hills, CA, 1995.[FR5]  Friedman, William F. Military Cryptanalysis - Part I,       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1980.[FR6]  Friedman, William F. Military Cryptanalysis - Part II,       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1980.[FRE]  Friedman, William F. , "Elements of Cryptanalysis,"       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.[FREA] Friedman, William F. , "Advanced Military Cryptography,"       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.[FRAA] Friedman, William F. , "American Army Field Codes in The       American Expeditionary Forces During the First World       War, USA 1939.[FRAB] Friedman, W. F., Field Codes used by the German Army       During World War. 1919.[FR22] Friedman, William F., The Index of Coincidence and Its       Applications In Cryptography, Publication 22, The       Riverbank Publications,  Aegean Park Press, Laguna       Hills, CA, 1979.[FROM] Fromkin, V and Rodman, R., "Introduction to Language,"       4th ed.,Holt Reinhart & Winston, New York, 1988.[FRS]  Friedman, William F. and Elizabeth S., "The       Shakespearean Ciphers Examined,"  Cambridge University       Press, London, 1957.[GARL] Garlinski, Jozef, 'The Swiss Corridor', Dent,       London 1981.[GAR1] Garlinski, Jozef, 'Hitler's Last Weapons',       Methuen, London 1978.[GERM] "German Dictionary," Hippocrene Books, Inc., New York,       1983.[GIVI] Givierge, General Marcel, " Course In Cryptography,"       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1978.  Also, M.       Givierge, "Cours de Cryptographie," Berger-Levrault,       Paris, 1925.[GRA1] Grandpre: "Grandpre, A. de--Cryptologist. Part 1       'Cryptographie Pratique - The Origin of the Grandpre',       ISHCABIBEL, The Cryptogram, SO60, American Cryptogram       Association, 1960.[GRA2] Grandpre: "Grandpre Ciphers", ROGUE, The Cryptogram,       SO63, American Cryptogram Association, 1963.[GRA3] Grandpre: "Grandpre", Novice Notes, LEDGE, The       Cryptogram, MJ75, American Cryptogram Association,1975[GODD] Goddard, Eldridge and Thelma, "Cryptodyct," Marion,       Iowa, 1976[GORD] Gordon, Cyrus H., " Forgotten Scripts:  Their Ongoing       Discovery and Decipherment,"  Basic Books, New York,       1982.[HA]   Hahn, Karl, " Frequency of Letters", English Letter       Usage Statistics using as a sample, "A Tale of Two       Cities" by Charles Dickens, Usenet SCI.Crypt, 4 Aug       1994.[HAWA] Hitchcock, H. R., "Hawaiian," Charles E. Tuttle, Co.,       Toyko, 1968.[HEMP] Hempfner, Philip and Tania, "Pattern Word List For       Divided and Undivided Cryptograms," unpublished       manuscript, 1984.[HILL] Hill, Lester, S., "Cryptography in an Algebraic       Alphabet", The American Mathematical Monthly, June-July       1929.[HINS] Hinsley, F. H.,  "History of British Intelligence in the       Second World War", Cambridge University Press,       Cambridge, 1979-1988.[HIN2] Hinsley, F. H.  and Alan Strip in "Codebreakers -Story       of Bletchley Park", Oxford University Press, 1994.[HIS1] Barker, Wayne G., "History of Codes and Ciphers in the       U.S. Prior to World War I," Aegean Park Press, Laguna       Hills, CA, 1978.[HITT] Hitt, Parker, Col. " Manual for the Solution of Military       Ciphers,"  Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1976.[HOFF] Hoffman, Lance J., editor,  "Building In Big Brother:       The Cryptographic Policy Debate," Springer-Verlag,       N.Y.C., 1995. ( A useful and well balanced book of       cryptographic resource materials. )[HOM1] Homophonic: A Multiple Substitution Number Cipher", S-       TUCK, The Cryptogram, DJ45, American Cryptogram       Association, 1945.[HOM2] Homophonic: Bilinear Substitution Cipher, Straddling,"       ISHCABIBEL, The Cryptogram, AS48, American Cryptogram       Association, 1948.[HOM3] Homophonic: Computer Column:"Homophonic Solving,"       PHOENIX, The Cryptogram, MA84, American Cryptogram       Association, 1984.[HOM4] Homophonic: Hocheck Cipher,", SI SI, The Cryptogram,       JA90, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.[HOM5] Homophonic: "Homophonic Checkerboard," GEMINATOR, The       Cryptogram, MA90, American Cryptogram Association, 1990.[HOM6] Homophonic: "Homophonic Number Cipher," (Novice Notes)       LEDGE, The Cryptogram, SO71, American Cryptogram       Association, 1971.[IBM1] IBM Research Reports, Vol 7., No 4, IBM Research,       Yorktown Heights, N.Y., 1971.[INDE] PHOENIX, Index to the Cryptogram: 1932-1993, ACA, 1994.[JAPA] Martin, S.E., "Basic Japanese Coversation Dictionary,"       Charles E. Tuttle Co., Toyko, 1981.[JOHN] Johnson, Brian, 'The Secret War', Arrow Books,       London 1979.[KAHN] Kahn, David, "The Codebreakers", Macmillian Publishing       Co. , 1967.[KAH1] Kahn, David, "Kahn On Codes - Secrets of the New       Cryptology," MacMillan Co., New York, 1983.[KAH2] Kahn, David, "An Enigma Chronology", Cryptologia Vol       XVII,Number 3, July 1993.[KAH3] Kahn, David, "Seizing The Enigma", Houghton Mifflin, New       York, 1991.[KOBL] Koblitz, Neal, " A Course in Number Theory and       Cryptography, 2nd Ed, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994.[KONH] Konheim, Alan G., "Cryptography -A Primer" , John Wiley,       1981, pp 212 ff.[KOTT] Kottack, Phillip Conrad, "Anthropology: The Exploration       Of Human Diversity," 6th ed., Mcgraw-Hill, Inc., New       York, N.Y.  1994.[KOZA] Kozaczuk, Dr. Wladyslaw,  "Enigma: How the German       Machine Cipher was Broken and How it Was Read by the       Allies in WWI", University Pub, 1984.[KULL] Kullback, Solomon, Statistical Methods in Cryptanalysis,       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, Ca. 1976[LAFF] Laffin, John, "Codes and Ciphers: Secret Writing Through       The Ages," Abelard-Schuman, London, 1973.[LAKE] Lakoff, R., "Language and the Womans Place," Harper &       Row, New York, 1975.[LANG] Langie, Andre, "Cryptography," translated from French       by J.C.H. Macbeth, Constable and Co., London, 1922.[LAUE] Lauer, Rudolph F.,  "Computer Simulation of Classical       Substitution Cryptographic Systems" Aegean Park Press,       1981, p72 ff.[LEDG] LEDGE, "NOVICE NOTES," American Cryptogram Association,       1994.  [ One of the best introductory texts on ciphers       written by an expert in the field.  Not only well       written, clear to understand but as authoritative as       they come! ][LEWI] Lewin, Ronald, 'Ultra goes to War', Hutchinson,       London 1978.[LEWY] Lewy, Guenter, "America In Vietnam", Oxford University       Press, New York, 1978.[LEVI] Levine, J.,  U.S. Cryptographic Patents 1861-1981,       Cryptologia, Terre Haute, In 1983.[LISI] Lisicki, Tadeusz, 'Dzialania Enigmy', Orzet Biaty,       London July-August, 1975; 'Enigma i Lacida',       Przeglad lacznosci, London 1974- 4; 'Pogromcy       Enigmy we Francji', Orzet Biaty, London, Sept.       1975.'[LYNC] Lynch, Frederick D., "Pattern Word List, Vol 1.,"       Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 1977.[LYSI] Lysing, Henry, aka John Leonard Nanovic, "Secret       Writing," David Kemp Co., NY 1936.[MANS] Mansfield, Louis C. S., "The Solution of Codes and       Ciphers", Alexander Maclehose & Co., London, 1936.[MARO] Marotta, Michael, E.  "The Code Book - All About       Unbreakable Codes and How To Use Them," Loompanics       Unlimited, 1979.  [This is a terrible book.  Badly       written, without proper authority, unprofessional, and       prejudicial to boot.  And, it has one of the better       illustrations of the Soviet one-time pad with example,       with three errors in cipher text, that I have corrected       for the author.][MARS] Marshall, Alan, "Intelligence and Espionage in the Reign       of Charles II," 1660-1665, Cambridge University, New       York, N.Y., 1994.[MART] Martin, James,  "Security, Accuracy and Privacy in       Computer Systems," Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs,       N.J., 1973.[MAYA] Coe, M. D., "Breaking The Maya Code," Thames and Hudson,       New York, 1992.[MAZU] Mazur, Barry, "Questions On Decidability and       Undecidability in Number Theory," Journal of Symbolic       Logic, Volume 54, Number 9, June, 1994.[MEND] Mendelsohn, Capt. C. J.,  Studies in German Diplomatic       Codes Employed During World War, GPO, 1937.[MILL] Millikin, Donald, " Elementary Cryptography ", NYU       Bookstore, NY, 1943.[MYER] Myer, Albert, "Manual of Signals," Washington, D.C.,       USGPO, 1879.[MM]   Meyer, C. H., and Matyas, S. M., " CRYPTOGRAPHY - A New       Dimension in Computer Data Security, " Wiley       Interscience, New York, 1982.[MODE] Modelski, Tadeusz, 'The Polish Contribution to the       Ultimate Allied Victory in the Second World War',       Worthing (Sussex) 1986.[NIBL] Niblack, A. P., "Proposed Day, Night and Fog Signals for       the Navy with Brief Description of the Ardois Hight       System," In Proceedings of the United States Naval       Institute, Annapolis: U. S. 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Tuttle Co., 1969.[SACC] Sacco, Generale Luigi, " Manuale di Crittografia",       3rd ed., Rome, 1947.[SAPR] Sapir, E., "Conceptual Categories in Primitive       Language," Science: 74: 578-584., 1931.[SASS] Sassoons, George, "Radio Hackers Code Book", Duckworth,       London, 1986.[SCHN] Schneier, Bruce, "Applied Cryptography: Protocols,       Algorithms, and Source Code C," John Wiley and Sons,       1994.[SCH2] Schneier, Bruce, "Applied Cryptography: Protocols,       Algorithms, and Source Code C," 2nd ed., John Wiley and       Sons, 1995.[SCHW] Schwab, Charles, "The Equalizer," Charles Schwab, San       Francisco, 1994.[SHAN] Shannon, C. E., "The Communication Theory of Secrecy       Systems," Bell System Technical Journal, Vol 28 (October       1949).[SIG1] "International Code Of Signals For Visual, Sound, and       Radio Communications,"  Defense Mapping Agency,       Hydrographic/Topographic Center, United States Ed.       Revised 1981[SIG2] "International Code Of Signals For Visual, Sound, and       Radio Communications,"  U. S. Naval Oceanographic       Office, United States Ed., Pub. 102,  1969.[SINK] Sinkov, Abraham, "Elementary Cryptanalysis", The       Mathematical Association of America, NYU, 1966.[SISI] Pierce, C.C., "Cryptoprivacy," Author/Publisher, Ventura       Ca., 1995. (XOR Logic and SIGTOT teleprinters)[SMIT] Smith, Laurence D., "Cryptography, the Science of Secret       Writing," Dover, NY, 1943.[SOLZ] Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. , "The Gulag Archipelago I-       III, " Harper and Row, New York, N.Y., 1975.[STEV] Stevenson, William, 'A Man Called INTREPID',       Macmillan, London 1976.[STIN] Stinson, D. R., "Cryptography, Theory and Practice,"       CRC Press, London, 1995.[STUR] Sturtevant, E. 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